Current Affairs August 2015 - Vikalp Education

Online Vikalp, Current Affairs, Current Awareness, General Awareness, Aptitude Classes, Daily News, General Knowledge, General Awareness For All Competitive Exam, current affairs quiz,current affairs in india, current affairs about sports, current affairs and gk, current affairs about india, current affairs daily quiz, current affairs dairy, current affairs education, Top News, Breaking News, Latest News

Monday, August 31, 2015

Current Affairs - 31 August 2015

by , in

General Affairs

'Some Take Pleasure Mocking Bihar': Sonia Gandhi on PM Modi's DNA Remarks
  • 'Some Take Pleasure Mocking Bihar': Sonia Gandhi on PM Modi's DNA RemarksPATNA:  Congress Party chief Sonia Gandhi on Sunday lashed out at Prime Minister Narendra Modi, alleging that he had insulted the people of Bihar with his comments on DNA. Her latest attack on Mr Modi and his government at the 'Swabhiman Rally' in Patna, where she shared stage with top leaders of the Janata Dal (United), Rashtriya Janata Dal and Samajwadi Party.

    "Some people take pleasure in mocking Bihar. Whenever they get opportunity they comment about its DNA and culture. They also call it BIMARU," she said, referring to Mr Modi's comments at a rally he addressed in Muzaffarpur in July.

    Sonia Gandhi was sharing stage with Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar, his party, JD(U), chief Sharad Yadav, RJD chief Lalu Prasad and SP leader Shivpal Yadav, among others.

    She also picked a number of fronts on which he attacked the government, saying the Modi government was "doing nothing other than 'show-baazi'".

    "Modi-government has completed one-fourth of its time. Till now, what has it done other than 'show-baazi'..It has done nothing. You know better than me," said Sonia Gandhi.

    She attacked the BJP-led regime for not fulfilling its promise to provide employment to one crore people but also restricting job opportunities in the government and said the funds for major social security schemes like MGNREGA have been "heavily slashed".

    She also attacked the government over its attempts to overhaul the land acquisition law. "This is an anti-farmer government. They want to grab their land and distribute it among their rich friends. We fought for the protection of farmers' rights in the Parliament and in the end government had to bow down," she asserted.

    The Congress president also questioned the government's stand on Pakistan in the light of deaths of several army and paramilitary personnel and civilians in the firing from across the border.

    "Earlier Prime Minister Modi used to lecture on Pakistan. Now when our jawans are being killed on border and people are being attacked, what is his policy on Pakistan? The Nation wants to know," she said in an apparent reference to the recent calling off of NSA-level talks between the two countries.

    Holding Mr Modi responsible for economic crisis, Sonia Gandhi said that it is because of his mistakes that inflation has gone up. "Inflation is rising and value of money is declining. PM made only empty promises of a corruption-free India," she said.

    Appreciating RJD chief Lalu Prasad for his contribution towards the development of the state, Gandhi said, "Congress contributed in taking the state forward. It gave approval to make policies. Lalu Prasad has also contributed, but the state needs more."

    Family Approaches UK Government on Declassifying Netaji's files
    • Family Approaches UK Government on Declassifying Netaji's filesBERLIN:  Subhas Chandra Bose's family has approached the UK government, requesting it to declassify the relevant document on Netaji.

      The family has approached the UK government, asserting that it has classified files on him besides Japan and Russia.

      "My sister in London has approached the British government to declassify the files. They have admitted that they have files. But they have to go through them in detail. They have asked for more time." Mr Surya told PTI in Berlin..

      Netaji's grandnephew Surya Kumar Bose, who had met Prime Minister Narendra Modi on the issue during his visit to Berlin in April, said he had written a letter to him days after the meeting but is yet to receive any response.

      Asked about Modi government's approach on the issue, Mr Surya said he was hopeful on securing "closure" to the "mystery" over the issue.

      He said the issue is being taken up with governments of Japan and America and that the family was determined to get to the bottom of it notwithstanding whatever comes out of the declassification of the files.

      Surya Kumar Bose claimed that governments of Russia, Japan and the United States have information about Netaji and that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had their files open on him till 1985.

      "I do not think opening up of those files will create issues with any present government. You cannot blame the present government for what had happened in 1945-46," he said.

      Mr Surya said it was "high time" the mystery surrounding Netaji is brought to a close.

      Toeing the line adopted by the UPA government, Prime Minister Modi's Office in February had refused to declassify the files relating to Netaji.

      The Prime Minister's Office on Wednesday had told the Central Information Commission that it cannot declassify files related to Subash Chandra Bose as it will adversely affect relations with foreign countries.

    Book Royalty, Donations Help Keep OROP Protest Alive at Jantar Mantar
    • Book Royalty, Donations Help Keep OROP Protest Alive at Jantar MantarNEW DELHI:  For the last 77 days, veterans have been voicing their demand for the One Rank One Pension scheme at the Jantar Mantar in the heart of Delhi.

      The protest has taken its toll - six veterans who had been on fast have been taken to hospital. The latest being Bal Singh, a 70-year-old veteran with a heart condition who collapsed on the stage today and had to be rushed to hospital.

      Others like Major General Satbir Singh who have been managing the microphone, bringing updates to those present on the latest developments in talks with the government or just trying to keep spirits up, is now on the verge of losing his voice but is still not showing any signs of giving up.

      Help for the veterans has been coming from all quarters. While the Bangla Sahib Gurudwara has been sending langar twice a day, others have been donating boxes of bottled water and money. Today a young author, Bhaavna Arora, pledged the earnings from her book to support the ongoing protest at Jantar Mantar.

      "My dad and grandfather were in the Army and I feel that if the government can sanction 1 lakh 25 thousand crores ahead of elections in Bihar surely they can give 8,000 crores to their jawans," Ms Arora told NDTV. Titled 'Mistress of Honour', the book is inspired by life in the Army, she says.

      Ms Arora isn't the only one. Donations have been coming in from across the country. Lieutenant General RS Sujlana, a former commandant of the IMA, arrived with a cheque of Rs 7,50,000 donated by his batch mates and jawans who took part in the 1971 war.

      Despite several rounds of discussions with the government, there has been no breakthrough on OROP. PM Modi while referring to the contributions of the veterans today in the 1965 war did not mention OROP.

      While the government in the past has emphasized that it was committed to OROP, actress and rights campaigner Nafisa Ali whose husband 'Pickles Sodhi' was retired from the Army, reacting to the PM's radio address appealed to Mr Modi, "It's the bureaucrats who are blocking OROP, only PM Modi's bulldozer can work to help implement this long pending demand."

    FTII Stir: Protesting Students Await Information and Broadcasting Ministry's Feedback
    • FTII Stir: Protesting Students Await Information and Broadcasting Ministry's FeedbackPUNE:  Striking FTII students were awaiting a feedback from the Information and Broadcasting Ministry after the August 21 visit of its three-member delegation which held talks with various stakeholders to end the now 80-day stir, even as demonstrations remained subdued on the campus today.

      The protesting students have been demanding removal of BJP member and TV actor Gajendra Chauhan from the post of chairman of the Governing Council of Film & Television Institute of India.

      Kindling the hopes of a resolution of the long-drawn agitation by the students that raised the issue of an alleged saffronisation of various national academic institutions and their autonomy, the delegation led by S M Khan had held discussions with FTII students, faculty and staff. The discussions were later described as "satisfactory" by all stakeholders.

      However, the committee which was expected to submit its report to the Ministry last week, was yet to do so, according to the faculty and representatives of the FTII Students' Association (FSA).

      "We now hear that the Khan Committee which gave us a patient hearing with a positive outlook is likely to table its report in next couple of days -- Monday or Tuesday," an FSA representative Ameya Gore said today.

      The acting dean of FTII Sandip Chatterjee told PTI, "We expect the committee to submit its report early next week."

      Apart from a stand on the students' demands, which include removal of Chauhan and four members of the FTII body, who allegedly lack "credentials and status", the I&B committee is also expected to make known its stand on the controversial police complaint filed by FTII director Prashant Pathrabe that led to the arrests of five students involved in his gherao recently.

    DRDO-Patanjali Deal to Fetch Business for Leh People: Manohar Parrikar
    • DRDO-Patanjali Deal to Fetch Business for Leh People: Manohar ParrikarPANAJI:  Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar has said the DRDO's transfer of technology deal with yoga guru Ramdev's trust will fetch Rs. 50 crore revenue for the people of Leh region.

      The premier defence research institute recently signed a TOT deal with Patanjali Ayurveda Limited for manufacturing and marketing of products made out of berries from Leh region.

      "People do not understand issues. They just keep talking. When one partners with Ramdev, people see saffron and the dialogue veers in that direction without understanding the issue," Mr Parrikar said addressing a public function in Panaji last evening.

      He said the Patanjali Yogpeeth has plans spread over five years to manufacture Leh berry-based products worth Rs. 50-60 crore annually and sell it across India.

      "If they market it, the local people will get a business of Rs. 50 crore...If people who are cut off (from the mainland) because of snow for six months benefit from this, they will continue to progress with the country," Mr Parrikar said.

      The Defence Minister said that Leh berries are "extremely nutritious and contain vital beneficial elements."

      "We can use it instead of fish oil. It is better than fish oil for one's health. The DRDO has found this in research," he said.

    Business Affairs 

    Government not to re-promulgate land ordinance, says PM Narendra Modi
    • Govt may favour withdrawal of contentious amendments in land billFacing stiff resistance on the Land Acquisition Bill, Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday announced that the government will not re-promulgate the Ordinance which expires on Monday (August 31) and declared readiness to accept any suggestions to benefit the farmers in the pending bill on it.
      Apparently referring to the political opponents, he said lot of misapprehensions had been created over the Land bill and fear was instilled among the farmers, even though states had suggested amendments to the Act of 2013 for the benefit of villages and villagers.
      "I have said it earlier also. The government has an open mind on the Land Acquisition Bill, about which there is a lot of controversy. I have said it again and again that I am ready to accept any suggestion for the benefit of farmers," Modi said in his monthly radio program 'Mann Ki Baat'.
      "We had promulgated an Ordinance on Land Acquisition Bill which will expire tomorrow. I have decided that it should be allowed to expire. It means restoration of the situation that prevailed before my government took over," the Prime Minister said, while insisting that the voice of farmers mattered the most to him.
      The government had issued the Ordinance thrice so far as the Land bill could not be passed in Parliament due to stiff resistance by most of the opposition parties as well as some ruling NDA allies.
      Modi, during his 20-minute address, maintained that the suggestions for "improving" upon the Land Act of 2013 had come from states who believed that for the welfare of farmers, there should be canals to bring irrigation water, electric poles for electricity, roads, houses and poor villagers should get work and "we should free this law from the clutches of the bureaucracy".
      However, after the government brought the land bill, "a lot of misapprehension was created and so much of fear was instilled among the farmers. The farmers should neither have doubts nor have any fear and I will not give any such opportunity to anybody. ... Now there is no cause for any doubt and if anybody tries to create fear, you should not be scared," he said.

    Bharti Airtel, Idea hike post-paid data tariffs by 20 per cent in Delhi
    • Bharti Airtel, Idea hike post-paid data tariffs by 20 per cent in DelhiAfter increasing data tariffs for pre-paid customers in Delhi,Bharti Airtel and Idea Cellular have now hiked charges for their post-paid users by around 20 per cent in various circles including the national capital.
      A couple of months back, the top three operators - Airtel, Idea and Vodafone - had raised pre-paid data tariffs for 2G and 3G services in Delhi by up to 47 per cent.However, there has been no hike in data charges by Vodafonein the post-paid category in Delhi or any other circles.
      According to the information available on companies' website, Airtel has raised data tariffs in Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, UP East and UP West circles; while Idea Cellular has hiked charges in Delhi, Punjab and UP West.
      Post-paid customers of the two operators in the above-mentioned circles will now have to pay Rs 300 for 1GB 3G data, against Rs 250 earlier for the same amount of data usage.
      Vodafone continues to offer 1GB 3G data for Rs 250 in Delhi circle.
      An Airtel spokesperson though told PTI that the increase is only for new post-paid customers and effected about two months ago.
      Queries in this regard sent to Idea Cellular remained unanswered.
      Operators generally don't make public announcement about increase in tariffs and put all information in this regard on their websites. They generally inform their post-paid customers through SMS about change in rates of services before their next billing cycle starts.
      Pre-paid customers, which constitute over 90 per cent of market, get to know about the rates revision when they go to recharge their mobile phones or through companies website.
      Telecom operators are required to report change in tariffs to sectoral regulator Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (Trai).
      The increase in pre-paid tariffs in June came in the aftermath of March spectrum auction wherein telcos had paid around Rs 1.1 lakh crore to acquire airwaves.
      Idea was the first telecom operator that increased data tariffs, followed by Airtel and Vodafone.
      In a bid to improve profitability, telcos have been cutting back on discounts and freebies. Last year, firms including Bharti Airtel, Vodafone and Idea had increased data as well as call tariffs.

      Raghuram Rajan cautions US Fed against raising rates
      • RBI Governor Raghuram RajanThe Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has cautioned its US counterpart on going ahead with a rate hike, especially at a time when world economic growth is stalling which has led to massive volatility in currency, equity and commodity markets.
        Caution regarding a hike during the upcoming US Federal Reserves (US Fed) rate decision was conveyed by RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan in an interview with CNBC at Jackson Hole, Wyoming."My position over time has been don't do it when the world is in turmoil. It's a long anticipated event, it has to happen sometime - everybody knows it has to happen - but pick your time," Rajan said during the interview aired on the channel's "Closing Bell" show.
        Rajan is in the US to attend the global central bank chiefs' meet at Jackson Hole, a ski resort located along the border of Wyoming and Idaho for the Federal Reserves' annual retreat.
        Rajan's comments come at a time when investors are spooked by a slowdown in China, massive devaluation in emerging markets' currencies and growing chances of the US Fed going in for a rate hike.
        The US Fed is expected to announce its decision to hike interest rates after a decade or so of easy monetary regime with interest rates pegged at near zero levels during its policy meet scheduled on September 16-17.
        The Indian markets are worried that the recent positive data points from the US has heightened chances of a US rate hike in September.
        High interest rates in the US are expected to lead away the foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) from emerging markets like India. It is also expected to dent business margins as access to capital from the US will become expensive.
        At the same time, Rajan showed great worry over a Chinese slowdown which has the potential to send the world economy back into a recession, start currency wars and dampen capital markets. Notwithstanding the possibility of a Chinese slowdown, he was quick to point out that India was relatively well placed due to its strong macro economic conditions.
        "If in fact there is a greater Chinese slowdown than is anticipated, it won't affect us as much as other countries around the world," he said.
        "Of course, everybody would like stronger Chinese growth, but to some extent we are among the least affected", he said.
        On the question of reducing interest rates Rajan said that he is not done with easing monetary policy, however adding that any future decision will be data driven.
        "We'll look at the data as it comes in and take a further view. We have not said we are finished," he added.
        India Inc has been urging the central bank to cut rates in the light of an expanding economy which is expected to grow around 7 per cent with contained inflation, reining-in of fiscal deficit, good monsoon coupled with a plunge in commodity prices.
        After having cut the short term lending rate thrice thus far in this calendar year to bring it down to 7.25 per cent, the RBI kept key lending rates unchanged during its last monetary policy meet held on August 4.
        RBI that time said that further cuts can only be effected if commercial lenders pass on the previous reductions to borrowers. RBI has so far reduced lending rates by 75 basis points in 2015.

      Payments banks' Rs 14 lakh crore bonanza for infrastructure sector
      • Payments banks' Rs 14 lakh crore bonanza for infrastructure sectorPayments banks can annually free up a whopping Rs 14 trillion in incremental credit for the fund-starved infrastructure sector, says a SBI Research report.
        "Apart from helping banks offer facilities to the unbanked sections, we estimate that on the asset side, an incremental amount of at least Rs 14 trillion per annum can be freed up for credit needs of the infrastructure sector, as these banks can only invest in G-secs, this entire amount can be freed up to lend to infrastructure", SBI Research said.Explaining how they arrived at the Rs 14-trillion of additional funds for investment, the report said people are holding around 13 per cent of cash with them for their day-to-day transactions. In a simple arithmetic, even if the cash with the public comes down by 1 per cent, it will increase banks' deposit base by around Rs 15 trillion and given a credit-deposit ratio of 75 per cent banks can loan out an additional Rs 11.25 trillion, through the multiplier effects.
        "On the liability side, we believe retail penetration of banking credit is very low at 9.5 per cent of GDP. This is much less than China's 22.5 per cent and significantly lower than our South Asian counterparts", says the report. Stating that there is a huge opportunity for banks to unlock their retail business potential, the report said, even if the incremental share for retail loans as a percentage of GDP are to increase by only 1 per cent, it could mean an additional Rs 1.3 trillion benefits to the banking system.
        On August 19, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) had granted in-principle approval to 11 entities from 44 applicants to set up payment banks. Some of those who got the licence include Reliance Industries (RIL), the Birlas, the Mahindras, Vodafone, and Bharti Airtel, among others.
        "Outstanding deposits of a small bank is about Rs 1 trillion. If each payment bank mobilises one-fourth of such deposits in a year(assuming a 25 per cent penetration, which is viable given that Jan Dhan mobilisation is around Rs 22,000 crore so far), the 11 payment banks will be able to mobilize around Rs 2.75 trillion in a year", the report said.
        The value of banknotes and coins in circulation as a percentage of GDP at 12 per cent is very high in the country compared to other emerging markets, like Brazil, Mexico and Russia.
        Cash is still the preferred mode of payment for a significantly large section of our society not having access to formal payment systems. With rapid financial inclusion, the report expects cash component in broad money supply in the country to decline in line with developed countries like Britain (2 per cent), Australia (3 per cent), and Japan (6 per cent). 

        The Digital Luxe Life
          The Digital Luxe LifeBill and Melinda Gates' Washington mansion is no ordinary millionaire's pad. The size and outward appearance are secondary; what sets it apart is technology. It has hi-tech sensors all over which monitor and regulate climate and lighting. The paintings on the walls are all on computer screens and can be changed at the push of buttons, whenever the couple wants to. There are hidden speakers everywhere which, with the help of a GPS, keep shifting the piped music to whichever rooms the couple is in. Every device and appliance seems to have a mind of its own, capable of remembering and performing remote controlled directions.
          The houses of Indian technology wizards and high net worth individuals have not got that far yet, but they are on their way. In a not-too-distant future, tech experts aver, you will need to only punch a few buttons on your smartphone in advance to have your window blinds rising on their own at a fixed hour every morning, letting in the sunshine. Your favourite music - or bhajan, or the morning news bulletin, whichever you prefer - would start to waft through your bedroom as you wake up. It would follow you into the kitchen or the bathroom as you move there. Lights and fans would turn on by themselves as you enter different rooms, and turn off again when you leave. The front door would lock itself as you depart for work. When you return, your garage doors would open as your car approaches. Your building lift - if you live in an apartment - would recognise you and take you automatically to your floor. Your front door would open as you reach it. Inside, the air conditioner would be already working, the TV already on.More delights would await you in the bathroom and the kitchen. Press some more smartphone buttons and the shower would start streaming water at your preferred temperature. "A smart bathroom's mirror would have a built-in TV, touch faucets, aroma therapy shower panels and a high-end Jacuzzi," says Neelesh Gupta, Director at Gurgaon-based sanitaryware supplier, De Ceramica*. In the kitchen, the coffee machine would have your morning or evening cuppa ready even as you enter it. Your appliances would possess sixth sense technology, making them capable of interpreting gestures. Ovens would turn on by themselves if you wanted them to, and suggest menu options as well. Refrigerators would chill faster if you so desired; chimneys would adjust their suction depending on what is being cooked. "Drawers would have touch-enabled sensors to open when you touch them or shut when you withdraw," says Vikas Juneja, Managing Director at home accessories maker, Benchmark Lifestyle Solutions. "Accessories from top European brands can make your kitchen as hi-tech as the latest luxury car models."
          Seems far fetched? In the past few years, Indian developers have begun offering houses which incorporate some of these features. Mantri Developers' housing projects across Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad and Pune; Sobha Developers' Habitech project in Bangalore; the Lodha Group's recent buildings in Mumbai and Thane; and IREO's Skyon Apartments in Gurgaon all have smart features in varying degrees. Mantri Developers' apartments, for instance, enable security and visitor management, as well as lighting control, at the touch of buttons, while activated alarms alert residents to fire, gas leakage or unwarranted intrusions.
          You can check who is at the door and conduct video door conferencing right from your living room through your TV
          Also, the average brick-and-mortar home can be turned a smart one with help from specialist companies, though it is always better to integrate smart features into the wiring at the construction stage itself. "We work with both new homes and old ones which seek smart retrofitting," says Thanik B., Director-Business Development & Strategy, Eco-Buildings, at electrical manufacturing giant, Schneider Electric India. "The basic requirement is to enable all the gadgets and devices installed in a home to communicate on a common platform. We have solutions for doing so." Once linked, a single app can provide a panoramic view of every room and buttons on a single device can operate every gadget.
          Naturally, the smart transformation does not come cheap. A number of the residents at DLF's upscale apartment complexes, Aralias and Magnolias, around the DLF Golf Course, Gurgaon, for instance, have upgraded thus - and it cost them a few crore. (The flats themselves, around 5,000 sq. ft. in area, cost about Rs 15 crore.) "Automating a five bedroom home, along with the living room would cost around Rs 15 lakh, excluding the cost of the equipment," says Sunit Mathur, Managing Director, Cinebels, which installs home entertainment equipment. "This would include automatic light dimming devices, air conditioners in all rooms with touch panels, home theatre systems in every room including a big one in the living room. The total cost depends upon the brand used, from Rs 30 lakh for everyday brands to a few crore for the high-end ones." Upgrading bathrooms and kitchen would raise the cost further. "The minimum cost of turning a single bathroom into a smart one would be close to Rs 15 lakh," says De Ceramica's Gupta. Similarly, experts estimated that smartening up a kitchen would cost at least Rs 25 lakh.
          There is, however, some saving in the long run, as smart homes are also energy efficient, reducing consumption by 30 to 60 per cent. "A combination of dimmers, sensors, and window shades maximise energy efficiency with respect to lighting," says Raimondo Salandra, President, Low Voltage Products, ABB India. "The house design, the gadgets and processes used help as well." Refrigerators, for instance, can be programmed to reduce cooling when the house owner is away and thereby save energy. "A smart home is one which improves quality of life without stressing resources," Salandra adds.
          Another key aspect is access to all multimedia entertainment from a central network storage device, with all content permanently stored there. "Often people lose the existing content on their devices as they record new songs, videos or movies," says Ashish Tijare, Vice President, Sales, CasaDigi, which provides intelligent home solutions. "We store your content at a single place in network storage from where it is available across all TVs in your home. We create individual profiles for all our members according to their personal preferences." Experts maintain that given the continuing advances in digital technology, the possibilities are endless.

        General Awareness

        ISRO successfully launches GSLV-D6 carrying GSAT-6 satellite

          • Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) successfully launched India’s communication satellite GSAT-6 first 2,000-kg-plus satellite using the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) D6 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.
            • (GSLV)D6, equipped with the indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS), successfully launched GSAT-6, the country’s latest communication satellite, into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).
            • The GSAT-6 has a six-metre wide unfurlable antenna that can facilitate utilisation of S-band space spectrum for communication and an 80-cm C band antenna that has been reserved for strategic uses.
            • GSAT-6 satellite will be orbiting the Earth with a perigee (nearest point to Earth) of 168 km and an apogee (farthest point to Earth) of 35,939 km with an orbital inclination of 20.01 deg with respect to the equator.
            • The 416 tonne, 49 m tall GSLV-D6 carrying the 2117 kg, GSAT-6, lifted off at 16:52 Hrs IST.
            • The GSAT-6 satellite is the same one that had been leased out to a private company, Devas Multimedia, four years ago for launching satellite-based mobile communication services, Devas had been authorised by ISRO, and the deal had been cancelled by the government in 2012 after allegations of favouritism surfaced.
            • ISRO is the sixth space agency in the world after those of US, Russia, Japan, China and France to have joined the indigenous cryogenic regime, which is crucial for launch of heavier satellites weighing more than two tonnes.
            • This is the second consecutive success with indigenous cryogenic engine capable of carrying 2-2.5 tonne class of spacecraft.

        Featured post

        Current Affairs - 16 December 2018

        General Affairs   Cyclone Phethai Gathers Over Bay Of Bengal, May Hit Andhra On Monday ...

        Copyright © 2016. Vikalp Education