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Current Affairs - 21 May 2018

General Affairs 

Model Code Does Not Bring Governance To Halt: Election Commission
  • The Election Commission has brushed aside arguments that the model code of conduct brings governance to a halt during polls, saying it only bars governments from announcing fresh projects and schemes during the period.

    The poll panel told the Law Commission that as and when government departments approach it with 'references' to clear proposals and schemes during election time, it takes a fast decision understanding the urgency involved.

    The issue of model code of conduct came up for elaborate discussion at a meeting between the top brass of EC and law panel on May 16 when they met to discuss the possibility of holding simultaneous elections to Lok Sabha and state assemblies.

    When members of the law panel asked the Election Commission about the "argument" that the model code brings governance to a halt, the poll panel rejected the suggestion, sources aware of the deliberations said.

    The EC was of the view that the code does not bring governance to a halt. It said the code only bars announcement and launch of new schemes and projects so that voters are not influenced by the party in power.

    It also told the law panel that "it works with alacrity" when government departments seek its permission to go ahead with certain decisions during model code period.

    It said several 'references' are received by it and it tries to dispose most on them in a time-bound manner.

    The law panel has now asked the panel to give it a list of references received from governments during recent elections, including those held in Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh and Karnataka.

    The model code of conduct is a set of norms which has been evolved with the consensus of political parties who have consented to abide by it and also binds them to respect and observe it in its letter and spirit.

    The Election Commission ensures that it is followed by parties and candidates. It is also ensured that official machinery is not misused to help the ruling party.

    The model code is enforced from the date of announcement of election schedule by the Election Commission and is operational till the process of elections is completed, which is usually a couple of days after the result is announced.

PM Modi, Vladimir Putin May Discuss Energy, Nuclear Issues At 'No-Agenda' Summit
  • The laid-back balmy weather of Sochi on the coast of the Black Sea is the ideal location where the first-ever informal summit will be held between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Russian President Vladimir Putin on Monday.

    The summit is likely to be held at the private 'dacha' or villa of Mr Putin set against the currently pre-monsoon like pleasant weather of the Black Sea resort. Sochi shot to fame when it successfully conducted the Winter Olympic Games in 2014. Hidden on a mountain side and unmarked on maps is the massive private residence of Mr Putin, which is supposed to have cost nearly $1 billion. It is said Mr Putin loves Sochi very much and on May 18, Mr Putin hosted German Chancellor Angela Merkel here.

    Mr Putin and PM Modi may take a walk along the famous stony beaches in Sochi. The town itself is currently being spruced up for the 2018 FIFA World Cup to be hosted in Sochi among other locations in Russia next month.

    PM Modi is flying in only for a day for this summit at the "invitation of Mr Putin" and it comes close on the heels of the unique "informal summit" held between India and China recently in Wuhan. This is a new way Mr Modi is handling foreign policy through a deeply personalised touch.

    A statement by India's Ministry of External Affairs spells out some details suggesting that "this will be an important occasion for the two leaders to exchange views on international matters in a broad and long-term perspective with the objective of further strengthening our special and privileged strategic partnership".

    pm modi to be in sochi
    President Putin and PM Modi may take a walk along the famous stony beaches in Sochi.

    Both leaders will also discuss their respective national developmental priorities and bilateral matters ... [and] is in keeping with the tradition of regular consultations between India and Russia at the highest levels, the ministry said.

    During informal summits, world leaders can get a better understanding of global issues in the absence of pre-set agendas. With China, reducing the tension on the border was important but with Russia, a trusted all-weather partner, increasing trade ties and stepping up defence and atomic energy cooperation could be priority.

    The meltdown of the Iranian nuclear deal after the US unilaterally pulled out of it would come up for sure, especially since India has 'civilizational links' with Iran. The patch up happening between North and South Korea over nuclear weapons is also going to be on the table. But closer home, atomic talks related to Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant are also likely to be part of the summit.

    PM Modi is expected to reassert India's avowed position of complete denuclearisation of these weapons of mass destruction from the world.

    Indo-Russian atomic energy cooperation could also be reviewed at the highest level. Reports suggest that India has invested nearly $5 billion in the Russian energy sector. Bilateral civil nuclear co-operation could be very high on the agenda.

    Two Russian-made 1000 MW atomic power plants are already working at Kudankulam and two more plants are already under construction. The first pair came at a cost of about Rs. 20,000 crore and the next at Rs. 40,000 crore with localisation amounting to about Rs. 12,000 crore, say sources at India's Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL).

    The two leaders may give that much-needed final bilateral push for the completion of the contract for the third pair of reactors at Kudankulam. The last of the two 1000 MW reactors at Kudankulam could come at a cost of Rs. 50,000 crores and PM Modi may assert that Russia accept a lot more of localisation of technology under his pet Make in India project. This would also help reduce the costs. India believes nuclear is an important carbon-free source of energy to mitigate climate change.

    But atomic experts say, discussion on the second site for the Russian Nuclear Park would be on the anvil. In the 2014 Indo-Russian 'Strategic Vision' document on nuclear cooperation, the two countries have committed themselves to building in all 16 nuclear reactors in the next two decades. In all, six reactors will come up at Kudankulam and the remaining six at another site.

    Today, it seems the next set of six reactors could come up in Andhra Pradesh. It is hoped that later this year in October, at the proposed formal summit, the two countries will announce the allotment of the second nuclear park site to Russia. India is hoping to order the updated and upgraded version of the Kudankulam light water reactors, each of these new ones would be 1200 MW and the first of those is already functioning Russia at Novovoronezh, some 500 km south off Moscow. It became operational in 2017.

    Beyond that there could be third site where four reactors could be placed in the long run.

    The Indo-Russian nuclear deal is well worth over Rs. 4,50,000 crores and could be the mother of all deals.

    It may be worth noting that as part of the agreement for the Indo-US Civilian Nuclear Deal, India has committed to buy 10,000 MW of reactors from USA and France. But unfortunately, both the French nuclear company Areva and the American atomic giant Westinghouse ran into financial trouble and declared bankruptcy, and the new owners are still taking charge in both the countries. In all possibility, India may not order either French or American reactors for the next three to four years till these 'new technologies' are safely operating.

    In addition and not merely as a footnote, India's maiden nuclear venture abroad in Bangladesh could also be discussed. At Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant, almost on the Indian border, Bangladesh is making two Russian-made 1200 MW reactors.

    India is getting to partner in these Bangladeshi reactors by providing training to Bangladeshi atomic engineers at Indian reactor sites. The three countries have signed a tripartite nuclear agreement on Rooppur, confirmed Anwar Hussain, Secretary of the Ministry of Science and Technology in Dhaka, who spoke exclusively on the sidelines of the 10th edition of the Atomexpo exhibition held at Sochi. At least 3,000 participants from 68 countries presented an upbeat picture of the global nuclear industry at the exhibition.

NDA Government Will Render Justice To Those Who Suffered During Anti-Sikh Riots: Ram Madhav
  • The BJP-led NDA government has taken steps and "will do its best" to render justice to each and every family that has suffered from the grave injustice perpetrated against them during the 1984 anti-Sikh riots, BJP general secretary Ram Madhav has said.

    "I stand before you to assure the community that we will do our best to render justice to each and every family that has suffered during those unfortunate years," Mr Madhav said amidst applause from the few hundred Sikh Americans who had gathered in a Maryland suburb of Washington DC to celebrate Vaisakhi.

    He said the NDA government has decided to go to any extent to punish the guilty in the crimes that were perpetrated against the Sikh community during 1984 riots. 

    Justice Dhingra Commission is actively looking into 186 serious cases of crime against the Sikh community in 1984, he added. A number of FIRs have been filed again. 

    "In fact, arrest warrants have been issued against the leaders who were in the forefront of this whole crime against the community," he said. 

    Prime Minister Narendra Modi in a special message said that observing the Vaisakhi festival abroad is a glowing sign of the traditions and the values that the Sikh community continues to cherish.

    "We are proud of the achievements of the Sikh community in North America, which has contributed significantly to the growth and prosperity in its adopted home. It is commendable that the community has also preserved its traditions and ethos, and is a living bridge with India," he said.

    Mr Madhav also said that Indian-Americans are playing a pivotal role in building India's strategic ties with the US.

    "We are not just political, strategic allies, we are natural allies because we are two people who share a very strong bond between us," he said.

    "People of Indian origin who live in this country are an important pivot of this relationship. We value your contribution to strengthen this relationship," he said.

India Working On Unmanned Tanks, Vessels, Robotic Weaponry For Future Wars
  • In an ambitious defence project, the government has started work on incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) to enhance the operational preparedness of the armed forces in a significant way that would include equipping them with unmanned tanks, vessels, aerial vehicles and robotic weaponry.

    The move is part of a broader policy initiative to prepare the Army, Navy and the Air Force for next generation warfare and comes amid rising Chinese investments in developing critical applications of AI for its military.

    Secretary Defence Production Ajay Kumar said the government had decided to introduce AI in all the three forces as it would be a "big area" considering the requirements of future warfare.

    He said a high-powered task force headed by Tata Sons Chairman N Chandrasekaran was finalising the specifics and framework of the project, which would be implemented in a "partnership model" between the armed forces and the private sector.

    "It is India's preparation for next generation warfare. This (AI) is where the future is going to be. We need to prepare ourselves for the next generation warfare which will be more and more technology driven, more and more automated and robotised," he told PTI.

    Like many other world powers, India had also started work on the application of AI to boost the capabilities of its armed forces, Mr Kumar said, adding that unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned naval vessels, unmanned tanks and automatic robotic rifles as weapon systems will have an extensive use in future wars.

    "We need to create capabilities for all these platforms," he said.

    Military sources said the project would also include production of a range of unmanned platforms for the three services.

    They said the forces were strongly pushing for extensive applications of AI in their operational preparedness on a par with leading global military powers.

    The sources said the application of AI in the surveillance of India's borders with China and Pakistan could significantly ease the pressure on armed forces personnel guarding the sensitive frontiers.

    China has been pouring in billions of dollars into AI research and machine learning. Last year, it unveiled an ambitious plan to make the country the AI innovation centre of the world by 2030.

    The US, Britain, France and the European Union are also investing significantly in AI, an area of computer science devoted to the creation of intelligent machines.

    The US has been carrying out successful operations targeting terrorist hideouts in Afghanistan and Northwest Pakistan using unmanned drones which operate with the help of artificial intelligence.

    "AI is going to be a very big concept in the coming years. Major countries of the world are now working on strategies to see how AI can be used for defence forces. We are also moving ahead. What is unique about this initiative is that we have industry and defence forces working jointly," Mr Kumar said.

    He said the recommendations of the task force were likely to come in by June and then the government would take the project forward.

    "India has a fairly strong IT industry base and that is going to be our biggest strength in terms of developing AI capabilities," said Mr Kumar, who has been playing a key role in pushing forward the project.

    Mr Kumar said a framework was being finalised under which industry and defence forces could work together to create a strong base for AI in defence systems.

    "We need to work on a partnership model which should be different from a buyer- seller proposition while fully leveraging capabilities of the industry," he said, adding state-run Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) would be a major player in the project.

    Mr Kumar said there was an enormous potential for the use of AI in the civilian sphere as well and the task force was also looking into it.

Amit Shah On How Karnataka BJP Would've Arranged More Seats In 15 Days
  • Chief Minister BS Yeddyurappa could have been able to prove majority if he had a fortnight to face the test of strength. Because, BJP president Amit Shah said on Saturday, many legislators of the Janata Dal Secular legislators would have sensed the public mood in their constituencies against the "unholy" alliance with the Congress and supported the BJP government on their own.

    Mr Shah rebutted the Congress-JDS accusation that it had been trying to lure their legislators with bribes running into crores of rupees. If this had been true, the party would have managed to reach the majority mark, Mr Shah said at the India TV Conclave in the national capital.

    "Had we got the 15-day period to prove our majority, their party MLAs would have gone to their constituencies and they would have changed their mind," Mr Shah said, according to a statement by television channel India TV. But they were locked away by their parties in hotels and elsewhere, he said.

    Leaders of the Congress-JDA combine say they had to shield their legislators from pressure plied by the BJP to engineer defections.

    Over the last two days, the Congress has backed up its allegation with audio tapes, of what it claimed, were a recording of phone calls received from BJP leaders including Janardhan Reddy, the scam-tainted mining baron from Ballari.

    HD Kumaraswamy, who was invited by the governor to become chief minister on Saturday evening, had earlier alleged some of his party's lawmakers had received offers of Rs. 100 crores in cash and ministerial berths in exchange for their support.

    Amit Shah, considered the BJP's master strategist, also denied that the BJP would try to pull down the alliance government.

    He, however, predicted that the government would not last long due to internal pressure that would pull it in different directions.

    "You just wait for one year," he said, prophesising a major victory for the BJP in the next elections held in the state.

    "Such a government will not last long in the state. Congress leaders have themselves not accepted their alliance with JDS," said Mr Shah, whose party has been accused for trying to bribe or arm-twist legislators into supporting Mr Yeddyurappa.

    The Congress, which ended up with 78 seats in the Karnataka assembly elections, had teamed up with the rival JDS, to keep the BJP out of power. The BJP, which secured 104 seats in the state assembly, is the single largest party in the assembly but is still some distance away from the majority mark of 111 seats. It nevertheless picked up an invite from governor Vajubhai Vala on Thursday and was given 15 days to prove its majority.

    Sensing that the BJP would attempt to poach its lawmakers, the Congress and the JDS had promptly sequestered its legislators, initially in Karnataka and after Mr Yeddyurappa became chief minister, in Telangana capital Hyderabad.

Business Affairs

Petrol, diesel prices skyrocket to all time highs; rates hiked for seventh day in row after Karnataka polls
  • Petrol and diesel prices reached their respective all-time highs after state-owned oil companies passed on the four weeks of non-stop increase in international oil prices to consumers. Petrol prices in Delhi raced to a record high of Rs 76.24 per litre whereas diesel prices jumped to their higher ever level of Rs 67.57 per litre on Sunday.

    In Delhi, petrol prices were increased by 33 paise per litre - which is the highest since daily price revision came into play last year in June - and diesel prices were pushed up by 26 paise per litre, as per price notification issued by oil PSUs. Prices in the national capital also happen to be the cheapest among all metro cities and most state capitals.

    As of now, Mumbai is the worst hit in terms of petrol prices where high local taxes have taken them to Rs 84.07 per litre. Petrol rates in Kolkata and Chennai have not breached the Rs 80-mark yet and stand at Rs 78.91 per litre and 79.13 per litre respectively. Prices have gone beyond Rs 80 in Bhopal (Rs 81.83 a litre), Patna (Rs 81.73), Hyderabad (Rs 80.76) and Srinagar (Rs 80.35), according to the price notification. Presently, petrol is cheapest in Goa's capital Panjim at Rs 70.26 per litre.

    Diesel prices are the highest in Hyderabad where a litre is priced at Rs 73.45 on account of high local taxes. A litre of diesel costs Rs 71.94 in Mumbai, Rs 70.12 in Kolkata and Rs 71.32 in Chennai, the notification said.

    Diesel is the cheapest in Port Blair where it is priced at Rs 63.35. It is priced at Rs 73.34 in Trivandrum. Other cities where diesel rates have crossed Rs 70 mark are Raipur (Rs 72.96 a litre), Gandhinagar (Rs 72.63), Bhubaneswar (Rs 72.43), Patna (Rs 72.24), Jaipur (Rs 71.97), Ranchi (Rs 71.35), Bhopal (Rs 71.12) and Srinagar (Rs 70.96)

    This is the seventh day that fuel prices have been increased since oil companies resumed daily price revision after a 19-day long pause on account of Karnataka polls. In the past week, petrol prices have seen an increase of Rs 1.61 per litre, whereas diesel went up by Rs 1.64 per litre during this time.

    Oil PSUs are estimated to have lost about Rs 500 crore on absorbing higher cost resulting from the spike in international oil rates and fall in rupee against the US dollar during the nearly three-week hiatus.

    The benchmark international rate for petrol, used for revising rate on April 24, had gone up from USD 78.84 per barrel to USD 84.97 on May 14. It has further risen to USD 84.97, indicating more daily hikes would be needed to level retail price with cost.

    Similarly, benchmark international diesel rates during this period have climbed from USD 84.68 per barrel to USD 90.28 per barrel. Also, the rupee has weakened to Rs 67.27 per US dollar from Rs 66.62, making imports costlier.

Mumbai jeweller becomes first person to be put on no fly list: Here's what he did on a Jet Airways flight
  • A Mumbai-based jeweller has become the first person to be put on the 'National No Fly List' for creating a hijack scare on a Jet Airways flight last year. A senior DGCA official confirmed the development, saying that 'Salla is the first person to be put on the no fly list'. 

    Incidentally, he was also the first to be booked under the stringent Anti-Hijacking Act which had replaced the vintage law of 1982. This comes six months after Jeweller Birju Kishore Salla planted a note about hijackers in the toilet of a Mumbai-Delhi Jet Airways flight, forcing the plane to make an emergency landing in Ahmedabad. The note, which was printed in Urdu and English, stated that there were hijackers and bomb in the cargo area. 

    It said: "Flight No 9W 339 is covered by Hijackers and aircraft should not be land and flown straight to POK. 12 people on board. if you put landing gear you will hear the noise of people dying. don't take it as a joke. Cargo area contains explosive bomb and wl blast if you land Delhi (sic)". 

    The then Union Civil Aviation Minister Ashok Gajapathi Raju had advised airlines to put Jeweller Salla on the no-fly list. No-Fly list was introduced last year in September to tackle on-board disruptive and unruly behaviour by passengers.  

    The DGCA defines three categories - Level-1, 2, 3 - of unruly behavior. Level-1 refers to behaviour that is verbally unruly, and calls for debarment upto 3 months; Level-2 indicates physical unruliness and can lead to the passenger being debarred from flying for upto 6 months and Level-3 indicates life-threatening behaviour where the debarment would be for a minimum of 2 years.

    Salla, who is a multi-millionaire jeweller having his office in the Zaveri Bazar area of Mumbai and a flat in a posh locality of the metropolis, has been placed under the third category. During the interrogation, Salla had confessed to preparing the note.

Jammu and Kashmir has potential to provide electricity to country: PM Modi
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Saturday said that the northern Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir has the potential to produce power for the rest of the country. He said Jammu and Kashmir has many rivers that have potential for electricity generation.

    "This state has the potential not only to meet its own requirements, but can also produce power for the rest of the country," the Prime Minister said after inaugurating 330-MW Kishanganga power project in the state.  

    He said that the government was also making efforts to provide uninterrupted electricity supply to every household in Jammu and Kashmir. "Rs 4,000 crore is being spent on improving the power distribution network in J&K so that every village and town of the state is lit up," the Prime Minister said.

    Prime Minister Modi further said that the government was not only working on providing electricity to households, but also to ensure power bills do not become a burden on the people.

    He referred to the success of Ujala scheme and said that under this scheme the government has provided over 78 lakh LED bulbs that saved electricity to the tune of Rs 400 crore every year. 

    "Electricity connections are being provided free of cost to households in the state that were hitherto not electrified," Modi said.

    The 330-MW Kishanganga Hydro Electric Project, located in Bandipora District of Jammu and Kashmir, is a run-of-river scheme. It is designed to divert water from the Kishanganga River to a power plant in the Jhelum River basin. 

    The Project began in 2007 and was expected to be completed in 2016, but in 2010, Pakistan moved for international arbitration against India under the provisions of the Indus Waters Treaty 1960 that regulates the use of waters in the shared rivers. 

    The Hague-based International Court of Arbitration allowed India in 2013 to go ahead with construction of the project and upheld India's right under the bilateral Indus Waters Treaty to divert waters from the Kishanganga for power generation in Jammu and Kashmir.

    Ministry of Power in a statement said that the Kishangana Project will provide a free power of 13 per cent to the state.  The Project has been proposed to be completed at a cost of Rs 5882 crore.

BoI to get Rs 1993 crore from Tata Steel-Bhushan Steel deal
  • The state-owned Bank of India (BoI) would be able to realise around Rs 1993 crore from the first successful NCLT resolution concerning Tata Steel and Bhushan Steel, an official said.

    The amount would not include hair-cuts, BoI managing director and chief executive officer D Mohapatra said. The realisation of the amount would lead to NPA reduction and increase profitability of the bank, he added.

    "The first successful NCLT resolution involving Tata Steel and Bhushan Steel will help in realise Rs 1993 crore. If there are haircuts, the amount will be written back from provisioning," Mohapatra said in a news conference.

    In the first list of 12 accounts sent to NCLT for resolution under Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), BoI's exposure was Rs 8300 crore. In the second list of 27 accounts, the exposure was Rs 3000 crore, he said.

    "Once all the resolutions are successfully completed that are expected in FY 2019, the bank will see a rise in profitability," he added.

    Under the Standby Letter of Credit (SLOC) scheme, the bank was able to recover Rs 9000 crore and some Rs 500 crore remains.

    Mohapatra said that Punjab National Bank (PNB) had returned Rs 2500 crore to BoI which it had honoured in the Nirav Modi scam.

    The bank was also in the process of rationalising the number of ATMs based on cost-benefit analysis, he said.

    Retail, agri and MSME advances constituted more than 50 per cent of the total lending of the bank, Mohapatra said.

RIL gets green nod for Rs 2,338 crore expansion project in Maharashtra
  • Reliance Industries (RIL) has received environment clearance for the expansion and optimisation of its petrochemical complex at Nagothane in Raigad district of Maharashtra at an estimated cost of Rs 2,338 crore.

    "The environment clearance has been given to the RIL's expansion and debottlenecking of petrochemical project at Nagothane," a senior Environment Ministry official said.

    The approval, given based on the recommendations of an expert panel, is subject to compliance of certain conditions, the official said.

    The proposal is to expand the gas cracker and downstream plants located at Nagothane village in Raigad district by way of debottlenecking, expansion and change of fuel in captive power plant (CPP) along with expansion and rebuilding of residential township.

    The cost of the proposed project, expected to be commissioned in stages, is estimated to be Rs 2,338 crore, the official added.

    As per the proposal, no additional land and manpower is required for the proposed project. It has 744 hectare land and 1,794 manpower at present.

    The company manufactures wide range of products such as Ethylene Oxide, Ethylene Glycol, Linear Low Density High Density Polyethylene (LLHDPE), Hexene-1 and others along with a gas-based CPP.

    Presently, RIL Nagothane uses a mixture of ethane and propane to produce downstream products and by-products. The proposal is to modify its feedstock ratio in its gas cracker plant owing to availability of imported shale gas ethane.

    With the proposed change in feedstock mixture resulting in higher production of ethylene, the company wants to expand the capacities of downstream products/by-products to accommodate the increased ethyelene production.

    That apart, the company has proposed to enhance CPP capacity from 85 mw to 100 mw by way of refurbishing and also use ethane as a fuel owing to its economic viability and availability.

    Further, the proposed project also includes expansion of the existing township with additional residential apartments within the township area.

    General Awareness

    “AYUSH” finds a place in English Language
    • Context: The Commission for Scientific and Technical Terminology has decided to adopt the word ‘AYUSH’ in Hindi and English languages for scientific and technical purposes.

      As approved by the Commission, the word ‘ayush’ will have the meaning “Traditional and Non-Conventional Systems of Health Care and Healing which include Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa Rigpa, Homoeopathy etc.


      The “AYUSH” became popular as the acronym for five traditional and complementary systems of medicine, namely Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy and successfully adopted and used in all Government communications.


      This decision will give a boost to India’s efforts to find a place for the Indian Systems of Healthcare in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) of the World Health Organization.  The Indian systems finding a place in ICD will lead to their international acceptance, increased rigor of research in them and their over-all development.

      About International Classification of Diseases (ICD):

      The International Classification of Diseases is the standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management, and clinical purposes. This includes the analysis of the general health situation of population groups. It is used to monitor the incidence and prevalence of diseases and other health problems, providing a picture of the general health situation of countries and populations.
      The first international classification edition, known as the International List of Causes of Death, was adopted by the International Statistical Institute in 1893. WHO was entrusted with the ICD at its creation in 1948. The ICD is revised periodically and is currently in its 10th revision.

      Uses of ICD:

      Uses include monitoring of the incidence and prevalence of diseases, observing reimbursements and resource allocation trends, and keeping track of safety and quality guidelines. They also include the counting of deaths as well as diseases, injuries, symptoms, reasons for encounter, factors that influence health status, and external causes of disease.

      Facts for Prelims:

      Commission for Scientific and Technical Terminology:

      The Commission for Scientific & Technical Terminology (CSTT) was set up on December 21, 1960 by a resolution of Government of India under the proviso to Clause (4) of Article 344 of the Constitution with the objective to evolve and define scientific and technical terms in Hindi and all Indian languages; publish glossaries, definitional dictionaries, encyclopaedia.

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