Current Affairs Current Affairs - 15 May 2018 - Vikalp Education

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Current Affairs - 15 May 2018

General Affairs 

Rs. 4,300 Crore Spent By Modi Government On Ads, Publicity, Reveals RTI
  • The central government has so far splurged Rs. 4,343.26 crore only for advertisements and publicity through different media, an RTI reply revealed.

    Mumbai-based RTI activist Anil Galgali had sought details from the centre's Bureau of Outreach and Communication (BOC) on all spend on advertisement and publicity in all media since the present government assumed office.

    As per the replies provided by Financial Advisor, BOC, Tapan Sutradhar, the government spent Rs. 953.54 crore on publicity - Rs. 424.85 crore in print publicity, Rs. 448.97 crore on electronic media and Rs. 79.72 crore on outdoor publicity - during June 2014 to March 2015.

    In the next fiscal 2015-16, the spending increased substantially for all media. These included, Rs. 510.69 crore on print media, Rs. 541.99 crore on electronic media and Rs. 118.43 crore on outdoor publicity, or a total of Rs. 1,171.11 crore, reported news agency IANS.

    The government earmarked Rs. 1,263.15 crore for the 2016-17 period. During the period, expenditure on print saw a marginal dip with Rs. 463.38 crore allocated for the 2016-17 period, the report revealed, adding that the fund for electronic medium saw an increase over the previous year to Rs. 613.78 crore. Rs. 185.99 crore was set aside for outdoor publicity. 

    The next year, April 2017-March 2018, there was a sharp drop in spending on electronic media over the previous year to Rs. 475.13 crore and a significant drop in outdoor publicity expenses to Rs. 147.10 crore.

    The RTI replies also said that between April-December 2017 (nine-month period), the government spent Rs. 333.23 crore on the print medium alone, with the total figure of last fiscal (April 2017-March 2018) coming to Rs. 955.46 crore.

    "A detailed analysis proves that after stringent criticism it attracted, especially from the opposition and on social media, over squandering of scarce public resources, the government finally cut down on its publicity expenditure this year by Rs. 307.69 crore," Mr Galgali said.

    However, he pointed out that the total spending of last financial year is still significantly higher than the present government's first year in office when it spent Rs. 953.54 crore in just nine months in office.

    He added that although it is okay for the government to spend on publicity wherever genuinely required, in case of excess expenses, reins must be tightened and the authorities must publicise all such expenditure on its websites.

PM's Language Unacceptable, Manmohan Singh and Co. Write to President
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi must be cautioned against using "unwarranted, threatening and intimidating language" that is unbecoming for the country's top post, a group of Congress leaders, including former Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh, has written in a letter to the President.

    "It is unthinkable that in our democratic polity, the Prime Minister as head of the government would utter words which are threatening, intimidating in content and a public warning to the leaders of the main opposition party, the Congress," said the letter to President Ram Nath Kovind.

    The letter refers to PM Modi's speech at a public meeting in Karnataka's Hubli on May 6, in which he said: "Congress leaders, please listen carefully, if you cross your limits, remember this is Modi - and you will pay."

    The Congress leaders said the Prime Minister "was not expected" to use menacing language while campaigning, because then it would be the abuse of his powers and privileges as PM to settle personal and political scores.

    "This cannot be the language of the Prime Minister of a constitutionally governed democratic country of 1.3 billion people. The threat held out by the Prime Minister to the Congress leadership deserves to be condemned," said the Congress, calling PM Modi's words unacceptable.

    "We would like to state that neither the party nor our leaders will be cowed down by such threats."

    Hours later, the BJP came out with its list of abuses that it said had been directed at PM Modi by Congress leaders over the years, some before 2014, when he came to power at the centre.

    The Congress letter comes a day before the results of the Saturday Karnataka election, campaigning for which was acrimonious and replete with personal attacks from both sides.

    Speaking to reporters last week in Bengaluru, Dr Manmohan Singh had accused PM Modi of having "stooped low" and used his office to target his opponents "day in and day out."

    "No Prime Minister in our country has used the office of Prime Minister to say things about his opponent the way Mr Modi has been doing day in and day out... It is very shocking to see the Prime Minister of the country stoop so low and use language and frame ideologies that are unbecoming of a Prime Minister," the former Prime Minister had said.

Two Suicide Bombers Blow Themselves Up At Indonesian Police Headquarter: Authorities
  • Two terrorists on a motorcycle blew themselves up at a police headquarters in Indonesia's second city Surabaya on Monday, wounding at least 10 people including officers, authorities said, a day after a deadly wave of suicide bombings hit churches.

    Citing CCTV footage from the scene, East Java Police spokesman Frans Barung Mangera said a man and a woman on the bike stopped at the security checkpoint.

    "That's where the explosion happened," he added.

    "Two people were riding (on the motorcycle) and a woman was sitting at the back."

    The authorities said the wounded included six civilians and four police.

    Ambulances and the bomb squad descended on the chaotic scene with the CCTV images showed the mangled wreckage of a motorbike at the security gate at the headquarters in the heart of the city.

    There was no immediate claim of responsibility after the latest suicide bombing.

    "This is a cowardly act, undignified and inhumane," Indonesian President Joko Widodo told reporters in Jakarta.

    "There will be no compromise in taking action on the ground to stop terrorism."

    The lethal explosion comes just a day after a family of six including two young daughters staged suicide bombings at three churches in Surabaya during Sunday services.

    At least 14 civilians have died as a result of that attack, which was claimed by the Islamic State group, and the toll could climb with more than 40 injured in hospital.

    Multiple bombings

    The archipelago nation of some 17,000 islands has long struggled with Islamic militancy, including the 2002 Bali bombings that killed 202 people -- mostly foreign tourists -- in the country's worst-ever terror attack.

    Sunday's church bombings was Indonesia's deadliest attack in years. The attackers -- a mother and father, two daughters aged nine and 12, and two sons aged 16 and 18 -- were linked to local extremist network Jamaah Ansharut Daulah (JAD) which supports IS, police have said.

    Authorities said they believed some of the family members had recently returned from Syria, where hundreds of Indonesians have flocked in recent years to fight alongside IS in its bid to carve out a caliphate ruled by strict Islamic law.

    A further three people in another family were killed and two wounded when another bomb exploded at an apartment complex about 30 kilometres (20 miles) from Surabaya, just hours later, police said.

    The mother and one child died from the explosion while police said they shot dead the father who was carrying a bomb detonator.

    Two other children were injured in the blast and were taken to hospital. 

    There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the apartment bomb.

    In the church attacks, the mother, identified as Puji Kuswati, and her two daughters were wearing niqab face veils and had bombs strapped to their waists as they entered the grounds of the Kristen Indonesia Diponegoro Church and blew themselves up, police have said.

    The father, JAD cell leader Dita Priyanto, drove a bomb-laden car into the Surabaya Centre Pentecostal Church while his sons rode motorcycles into Santa Maria church, where they detonated explosives they were carrying, according to authorities.

    JAD, led by jailed radical Aman Abdurrahman, has been linked to several deadly incidents, including a 2016 gun and suicide attack in the capital Jakarta that left four attackers and four civilians dead. 

    That was the first assault claimed by IS in Southeast Asia.

    Police on Sunday said four suspected JAD members were killed in a shootout during raids linked to a deadly prison riot this week.

    Five members of Indonesia's elite anti-terrorism squad and a prisoner were killed in clashes that saw Islamist inmates take a guard hostage at a high-security jail on the outskirts of Jakarta. IS claimed responsibility.

    Karnavian said Sunday's church attacks may have been revenge for the arrest of some of JAD's leaders and for the prison crisis which eventually saw the surrender of the radical inmates.

Amit Shah Recalls Time When BJP Workers Celebrated Not Losing Deposits
  • Pointing out that BJP workers at one point in time celebrated if party candidates saved their security deposits, party president Amit Shah on Sunday said it had come a long way since then.

    From celebrating salvaging of security deposits, the BJP has become a political party with the most number of MPs, MLAs, zila panchayat members, councillors in the country and the only non-Congress party to win a full majority after Independence, Mr Shah said while addressing booth-level workers at an indoor stadium near Panaji.

    He claimed that his party will win a majority in the Karnataka Assembly, the votes for which were polled on May 12. The votes will be counted on May 15.

    "... there are many instances where party workers gave themselves a treat for barely managing to save forfeiture of deposits. The same BJP now has around 1,800 MLAs, 330 MPs, highest number of zilla panchayat members, councillors and the most state governments, Chief Ministers...," he remarked.

    Mr Shah said that he had a conversation with ailing Goa Chief Minister Parrikar on telephone. "I said you (Parrikar) take care of your health, the BJP will form a government with full majority in Karnataka," Mr Shah said.

    The BJP leader said that India, under Prime Minister Narendra Modi's leadership, was being looked at in a new light after the surgical strikes of 2016.

    He also praised booth-level BJP workers, saying that it was due to them that the party had an organisational ability like no other.

In Cabinet Reshuffle, Piyush Goyal Gets Finance Till Arun Jaitley Is Back
  • A reshuffle was announced in the Union cabinet this evening, in which Piyush Goyal will handle Finance Ministry till Arun Jaitley, who underwent a kidney surgery, recovers. Mr Goyal, who is in charge of Railways, will have finance as an additional charge.

    Rajyavardhan Rathore will be the new Information and Broadcasting minister. Smriti Irani had taken over the portfolio last July as an additional charge when Venkaiah Naidu resigned after emerging as NDA's pick for the post of the vice-president.

Business Affairs

Petrol, diesel prices hiked; Chidambaram says 'interval' due to Karnataka polls
  • Former Finance Minister P Chidambaram today slammed the government for hiking petrol and diesel prices, saying the recent 'interval' was only due to the Karnataka elections which got over on Saturday. "There we go again. More taxes on petrol and diesel, more burden on the consumer. The Karnataka election was only an interval," Chidambaram tweeted.

    Ending the 19-day freeze on the hike in petrol and diesel prices, the oil marketing companies (OMCs) on Monday increased the petrol price by 17 paise a litre while the diesel price was hiked by 21 paise. The move comes 2 days after polling was conducted for Karnataka elections.

    Fuel prices had remained stagnant for the last few weeks. The timing of the spike has raised a storm as political opponents claim that the hiatus in daily revision proved that the Centre forced the "autonomous" public sector oil companies not to revise fuel prices upwards before Karnataka voted. Polling in Karnataka ended on the evening of Saturday and Monday was the first working day after that.

    Earlier in December when Gujarat voted, retail prices of Petrol were virtually held static by  daily slashing of  1-3 paise for almost 14 days before polls. Right after polling was over from December 14 upward revision of fuel prices started.

    While the price of petrol has touched a 56-month high, diesel is at an all-time peak. Petrol price in Delhi was hiked to Rs 74.80 per litre from Rs 74.63 while diesel rates were increased to Rs 66.14 a litre from Rs 65.93.

    Though the PSU oil companies often freeze fuel prices before polls, the government has denied having any role to play in this. State-owned oil marketing companies are estimated to have lost about Rs 500 crore as they soaked in the higher input cost due to spike in international oil rates and fall in rupee against the US dollar. OMCs reverting to daily revision in prices could further push up the petrol prices in the wake of rising international crude oil prices and weakening rupee.

    Oil PSUs too refused to acknowledge if the freeze followed a government diktat so as to help ruling BJP in Karnataka. Last week, IOC (Indian Oil Corporation) Chairman Sanjiv Singh said the oil PSUs' decision to freeze fuel prices was aimed at stabilising, and that it incidentally coincided with the Karnataka election. He reasoned that the fuel prices saw the daily spike from 25 paise to 35 paise, resulting in the change in fuel prices by Rs 2 or Rs 3 every 15 days. "This was unrealistic. So, we thought of stabilising that, tapering it down to a certain extent. Now incidentally it coincided with some of the state elections. It was not the intention (of oil marketing companies)," he had said.

    State-owned oil companies in June last year dumped the 15-year old practice of revising rates on 1st and 16th of every month and instead adopted a dynamic daily price revision to instantly reflect changes in cost.

    If this practice was followed in letter and spirit, petrol and diesel prices should have been increased by Rs 1.5 a litre in last 19 days, an analyst tracking the sector said.

    The government had in June 2010 freed petrol price from its control and the diesel rates were deregulated in October 2014. Prices have since then moved more or less in tandem with international rates barring a few exceptions like the period before a crucial election.

    Finance Secretary Hasmukh Adhia and Economic Affairs Secretary Subhash Garg have in the past weeks ruled out any immediate reduction in excise duty to cushion the increases warranted from a spike in international oil price.

    The BJP-led government had raised excise duty nine times between November 2014 and January 2016 to shore up finances as global oil prices fell, but then cut the tax just once in October last year by Rs 2 a litre.

    The government had between November 2014 and January 2016 raised excise duty on petrol by Rs 11.77 a litre and that on diesel by Rs 13.47 per litre to take away gains arising from plummeting global oil prices. This led to its excise mop up more than doubling to Rs 2,42,000 crore in 2016-17 from Rs 99,000 crore in 2014-15.

    The central government had cut excise duty by Rs 2 per litre in October 2017, when petrol price reached Rs 70.88 per litre in Delhi and diesel Rs 59.14. Because of the reduction in excise duty, diesel prices had on October 4, 2017, come down to Rs 56.89 per litre and petrol to Rs 68.38 per litre.

    However, a global rally in crude prices pushed domestic fuel prices far higher than those levels.

SoftBank may invest up to $3 billion in Paytm Mall if it exits Flipkart: Report
  • The choice facing SoftBank is not an easy one. If it agrees to sell its 21 per cent stake in Flipkart to Walmart, it stands to pocket $4 billion - a 60 per cent return on investment in nine months. But a hefty chunk will go to the taxman, and it will miss out on any future valuation jump in the country's leading etailer.

    Unwilling to miss out on India's ecommerce growth story, SoftBank is reportedly exploring other avenues while it mulls on the choice above. According to The Economic Times, the Japanese conglomerate has held early discussions to invest as much as $3 billion in Paytm Mall,  run by Paytm E-commerce Pvt. Ltd - just last month, SoftBank had invested $400 million (Rs 2,600 crore) for 21 per cent stake in the company also backed by China's Alibaba Group.

    Citing a source, the report added that SoftBank could be freed from a clause in its agreement with Flipkart that restricts it from investing more than $500 million in Paytm Mall until 2020. However, these talks can only proceed if SoftBank finalises its exit from Flipkart. If this gambit plays out then the alignments in the Indian ecommerce battlefield will closely mimic the Chinese market where SoftBank-backed Alibaba is aggressively competing with Walmart-backed and Tencent. The latter, incidentally, will remain one of Flipkart's largest minority shareholders in Flipkart after the Walmart deal.

    SoftBank's Paytm Mall play makes sense when you consider that it has already replaced Snapdeal as the third-largest player after Flipkart and Amazon India in just 14-odd months of launch. To remind you, SoftBank had invested over $600 million in Snapdeal in October 2014 to emerge as its biggest stakeholder. The Japanese investor subsequently pushed hard for a merger between Snapdeal and its arch rival Flipkart in order to take on Amazon, but the deal fell apart and SoftBank has since written off its investment.

    Paytm Mall enjoyed a market share of about 5.6 per cent in its first full year of operations while the Flipkart Group, including online fashion retailers Myntra and Jabong, enjoyed a combined market share of 39.1 per cent and Amazon India cornered 31.1 per cent. The daily added that Paytm Mall ended 2017-18 with annualized Gross Merchandise Value or GMV of $3 billion and is targeting $10 billion GMV by the end of this fiscal. It also plans to triple its offline presence by the end of 2019. Incidentally, Alibaba has also invested in the hyperlocal grocery delivery company BigBasket and logistics player XpressBees to help flank Paytm Mall's expansion, and the three companies are reportedly working closely together.

    Given that market research provider Euromonitor expects about half of India's population to be online by 2021, by which time the Internet retailing market size is likely to balloon to around Rs 4,000 billion, you can safely expect the rate race to get even more aggressive here on.

Banks can't exchange soiled or torn Rs 200 and Rs 2000 currency notes: Report
  • There are many reasons why a currency note gets soiled or disfigured, ranging from excessive handling to getting torn/wet and nibbled on by white ants. But while the RBI has made provisions for the value of such notes to be refunded to the owner, either in full or as a matter of grace depending on the state of the note, two of the newest denomination notes are conspicuously absent from the list: Rs 200 and Rs 2000 notes.

    According to The Economic Times, banks are finding it impossible to exchange soiled Rs 200 and Rs 2000 banknotes as the rules governing their exchange are yet to be amended. The exchange of soiled, mutilated and imperfect notes are governed by Reserve Bank of India (Note Refund) Rules, a part of Section 28 of the RBI Act, which only specifies currency notes of Rs 5, Rs 10, Rs 50, Rs 100, Rs 500, Rs 1,000, Rs 5,000 and Rs 10,000 denomination. To remind you, the Rs 2000 note was issued post demonetisation in November 2016 and the Rs 200 note started trickling down to the masses from September 2017 onwards.

    Last month, after news broke that the government had halted printing of Rs 2000 denomination notes, Economic Affairs Secretary SC Garg had said, "There is no need for supplying Rs 2,000 notes as it is in over supply. The total worth of Rs 2,000 notes in the system is Rs 7 lakh crore in the system." So we are looking at a lot of potential soiled or damaged notes here.

    The report said bankers claimed that there have been few cases of mutilated notes in the new series so far but also cautioned this could become an issue if the law is not amended soon.

    "Due to change in size of Mahatma Gandhi (New) Series notes, mutilated/imperfect notes in MG (New) series could not be exchanged under the existing rules necessitating amendments to RBI (Note Refund) Rules, 2009.The mutilated/imperfect notes in the MG (New) series can be exchanged after notification of amendments in the official gazette," the apex bank told the daily, adding that it had written to the finance ministry about the need for amendment in 2017.

    But sources claim that a reply is yet awaited. In the meantime, you better handle your Rs 200 and Rs 2000 notes with care. Soiled bank notes of the other denominations can be exchanged for full value at any commercial bank branch while mutilated notes can be tendered at Reserve Bank of India Offices/designated bank branches.

    According to a circular issued by the central bank, you can also choose to send mutilated notes by post for adjudication to the nearest Issue Office of Reserve Bank of India. Do note, however, that banknotes that are less than half the area of the full note or counterfeit or those that have been deliberately cut/tampered with are not eligible.

Sensex, Nifty close flat ahead of Karnataka poll results, NTPC, Dr Reddy's, IndusInd Bank top gainers
  • The Sensex closed about 21 points higher today after early gains were erased due to a sell-off by participants ahead of the outcome of Karnataka assembly elections. Disappointing macroeconomic data added to the cautious mood, brokers said. Results of the Karnataka elections will be declared tomorrow, with most exit polls indicating a tight race between the ruling Congress and the BJP.

    The Sensex, after a better start at 35,555.83, advanced to hit a high of 35,642 amid positive cues from other Asian bourses. However, emergence of selling at every rise wiped off initial gains and the index finally settled 20.92 points, or 0.06 per cent higher at 35,556.

    The broader 50-issue NSE Nifty edged up just 0.10 points to close at 10,806, after shuttling between 10,834 and 10,774.

    NTPC (2.51%) , Dr Reddy's (1.24%) and IndusInd Bank (1.07%) were the top Sensex gainers.

    M&M (2.17%), Tata Motors (2%) and YES Bank (1.51%) were the top Sensex losers.

    Market breadth was negative with 845 stocks closing higher against 1827 ending lower on BSE.

    The Dena Bank stock fell today amid report that the Reserve Bank has initiated prompt corrective action (PCA) against the public sector lender considering high non-performing loans, restricting the bank from giving fresh credit and new hiring. The stock closed 5.96% or 1.10 points lower at 17.35 level on BSE. 

    "Key benchmark indices drifted higher in early trade on positive Asian cues. Domestic sentiment was also given a boost after exit polls reportedly showed the BJP could emerge as the single largest party in Karnataka. However, stocks were unable to hold on to their gains and subsequently slipped into negative territory to finally close the day near the flat line. Part of the selling pressure could be attributed to a higher inflation print and decelerating industrial production numbers. The annual rate of inflation, based on monthly Wholesale Price Index, stood at 3.18% (provisional) for the month of April 2018 (over April 2017) as compared to 2.47% (provisional) for the previous month and 3.85% during the corresponding month of the previous year. Additionally, industrial production (base year 2011-12=100) moderated to five-month low of 4.4% in March 2018 over March 2017, after showing healthy growth in the range of 7% to 8.5% for the most recent four consecutive months. Sectoral performance on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) was mixed. While the banking and healthcare indices witnessed gains, the auto, media and IT indices traded under pressure," Abhijeet Dey, senior fund manager, equities at BNP Paribas Mutual Fund said. 

    The Reliance Naval stock was among the top losers on BSE after public sector lender Vijaya Bank classified the Anil Ambani group-led Reliance Naval & Engineering, whose auditors had recently expressed doubts about the company's ability to continue as a "going concern", as non-performing asset from the March quarter.
    It owes over Rs 9,000 to over two dozen banks mostly state-run, led by the troubled IDBI Bank.

    Vijaya Bank said the action was necessitated by the February 12 changes that the Reserve Bank ad brought to the NPA resolution framework, which while scrapping all the existing frameworks, including debt restructuring, asked banks to consider even one-day delay in payments as default which if not cleared in 180 days should be sent to NCLT for bankruptcy proceedings.

    The stock fell 13.43 percent to 14.50 on BSE. The stock opened at 16.40 points today against previous close of 16.75 level.  The stock is down 70.56% since the beginning of this year.

    Meanwhile, domestic institutional investors (DIIs) bought shares worth a net Rs 1,163.35 crore, while foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) sold shares to the tune of Rs 325.44 crore on Friday, as per provisional data.

    Global markets 

    World stocks were mixed Monday after US President Donald Trump softened his tone on trade, saying he would seek a way to keep Chinese technology company ZTE in business despite US sanctions. European markets were slightly weaker amid signs that Italy's populist parties may form a government.

    France's CAC 40 dipped 0.3 percent to 5,525 and Germany's DAX lost 0.4 percent to 12,946. Britain's FTSE 100 edged 0.3 percent lower to 7,702 and Italy's FTSE MIB dropped 0.7 percent to 23,994. Wall Street was poised to open higher. Dow futures advanced 0.3 percent and S&P 500 futures rose 0.2 percent.

    Japan's benchmark Nikkei 225 rose 0.5 percent to close at 22,865.86 while South Korea's Kospi dipped 0.1 percent to end at 2,476.11. Hong Kong's Hang Seng jumped 1.4 percent to 31,541.08 and the Shanghai Composite in mainland China added 0.3 percent to 3,174.03. Australia's S&P/ASX 200 climbed 0.3 percent to 6,135.30. Taiwan shares rose but Southeast Asian indexes were mixed as Malaysian shares resumed trading after last week's election. The benchmark FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI rose 1.3 percent to 1,873.07.

Reversing trend, retail inflation inches up to 4.58% in April
  • Reversing the declining trend, retail inflation moved up to 4.58 per cent in April due to hardening in prices of cereals, meat, fish and fruits.

    The inflation based on Consumer Price Index (CPI), a key data factored in by the Reserve Bank while deciding interest rate, was 4.28 per cent in March.

    The inflation was at 2.99 per cent in April last year.

    The CPI index had been declining since January this year.

    As per data released by the Central Statistics Office (CSO), the rate of price rise in the protein rich items like meat and fish inched up in April to 3.59 per cent, as against the previous month of 3.17 per cent.

    Similarly, the inflation in the fruit basket was higher at 9.65 per cent compared to 5.78 per cent in the previous month.

    However, inflation in vegetables segment was lower at 7.29 per cent in April compared to 11.7 per cent.

    Overall, inflation in the food basket remained flat at 2.8 per cent month-on-month.

    The CSO data further revealed that inflation in the fuel and light segment also came in lower at 5.24 per cent month-on-month basis.

    General Awareness

    Latest Current Affairs - April 2018
      1. Appointments
        1. Aashish Kapoor replaced Venkatesh Prasad in three-member All-India Junior Cricket Selection Committee.
        2. Actor Rituparna Sen gupta is appointed as Chairperson of Shilpi Sansad, an organization that provides financial security to artistes of Bengali film industry.
        3. Armenia’s parliament voted to appoint country’s former President Serzh Sargsyanas as New prime minister of Armenia.
        4. BCCI appointed Ajit Singh as head of its Anti-Corruption Unit
        5. Bipin Puri appointed as Senior Col Commandant of Army Medical Corps.
        6. Brand Ambassadors (April 2018) -
          1. Manu Bhaker (Shooter) - Haryana’s Measles and Rubella (MR) vaccination campaign.
          2. Argentine Footballer Lionel Messi - UN World Tourism Organization's ambassador to promote responsible tourism.
          3. Shooter Gauri Sheoran - Haryana government's brand ambassador for its health-related programmes Including measles-rubella (MR) vaccination campaign.
        7. Carlos Alvarado has been elected as New president of Costa Rica (Central America).
        8. Central (Middle Asia) Parliament named Mukhammedkaliy Abylgaziyev as new Prime Minister.
        9. Central government apprved Senior Advocate Indu Malhotra as a Supreme Court judge. She is first woman lawyer to be directly appointed as a judge of Supreme Court, instead of being elevated from a high court.
        10. Chandra Shekhar Ghosh is re-appointed as MD & CEO of Bandhan Bank for 3 years. Also, Former RBI deputy governor Harun Rasid Khan joined Bandhan Bank board.
        11. Debjani Ghosh has been appointed as new president of NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Services Companies). Also, Rishad Premji is appointed as NASSCOM chairman for 2018-19.
        12. Dilip Chenoy is appointed as New Secretary-General of industry body Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).
        13. Finance Minister Arun Jaitley is re-appointed as Leader of Rajya Sabha (RS) following his re-election to House.
          1. Leader of the House is a Rajya Sabha member who is either a cabinet minister or another nominated minister.
        14. Finance Ministry appointed Bhanu Pratap Sharma as chairman of reconsttuited Banks Board Bureau (BBB). It will have a 3 year term.
        15. Former Indian Foreign Secretary S. Jaishankar has been appointed as the president of Tata Sons’ global corporate affairs.
        16. Former UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon is elected chairman of the Boao Forum for Asia, currently underway in China’s Hainan province.
        17. Government appointed Balram Bhargava as Director General of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Secretary of Department of Health Research.
        18. Government appointed Rajesh Ranjan as Director General of Central Industrial Security Force (CISF).
        19. HRD Ministry launched Study in India portal at URL, as a single window to cover all aspects relating to studying in India for foreign students. Students across world will now be able to pursue the education in prominent Indian Educational Institutions. Integration of e-SANAD portal and NAD – National Academic Depository (of HRD Ministry), was also launched on the occasion.
          1. e-Sanad is aimed at online submission and verification of documents with ultimate object to extend contact less, cashless, faceless and paperless document attestation service. Using it, any type of document viz personal, educational or commercial can be authenticated and apostilled.
          2. National Academic Depository (NAD) is 24X7 online store house of all academic awards viz. diplomas certificates,, degrees, mark-sheets etc. duly digitised and lodged by academic boards, institutions, eligibility assessment bodies. It ensures easy access to and retrieval of academic award and validates and guarantees its authenticity and safe storage.
        20. Himanta Biswa Sarma has been elected as President of Badminton Association of India (BAI) for 4 years.
        21. Jammu and Kashmir Assembly appointed Kavinder Gupta as Deputy- CM of state.
        22. Jim Bridenstine has been chosen as new (13th) administrator of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by US Senate.
        23. Julius Maada Bio has been elected as new president of Sierra Leone (West Africa).
        24. KR Nautiyal is appointed as Coast Guard Commander (Eastern) and Vijay Chafekar took charge as Coast Guard (West)'s Flag Officer.
        25. Kotak Mahindra Bank redesignated Uday Kotak as its Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer, from designation of executive Vice Chairman and Managing Director, that he had earlier.
        26. M L Srivastava is appointed as Protem (Temporary) chairman of Lalit Kala Akademi.
        27. M. Sathiyavathy has been appointed as Member in Union Public Service Commission (UPSC).
        28. Miguel Mario Diaz-Canel Bermudez has been appointed as New President of Caribbean Nation Cuba. He is first leader outside Castro dynasty to lead Cuba, since 1959 revolution.
        29. Muhammetkaliy Abulgaziyev has been apointed as new Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia).
        30. New Indian Ambassadors (April 2018) -
          1. Subrata Bhattacharjee - Serbia.
          2. Sripriya Ranganathan - South Korea (Republic of Korea).
          3. Ravi Thapar - Nicaragua.
          4. Sanjay Bhattacharya - Turkey.
          5. Rahul Kulshreshth - Egypt.
          6. Narinder Chauhan - Czech Republic
          7. Krishan Kumar - Norway
          8. Rajiv Kumar Nagpal - Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
        31. Noted German Financial Firm Deutsche Bank AG named Christian Sewing as Chief Executive officer.
        32. PP Malhotra is appointed as Director General of National Cadet Corps (NCC), largest uniformed youth organization in world.
        33. Rakesh Bharti Mittal is appointed as President of Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) for 2018-19, while Kotak Mahindra Bank Chief Uday Kotak is appointed as President-Designate of CII for 2018-19.
        34. Rakesh Kumar Vats has been appointed as chairman of NPPA (National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority).
        35. SBI Life Insurance appointed Sanjeev Nautiyal as its new Managing Director and CEO.
        36. Suresh Kumar took charge as chairman and managing director of Coal India Limited.
        37. T K Rajalakshmi elected as president of Indian Women’s Press Corps (IWPC).
        38. US Senate approved former CIA director Mike Pompeo as secretary of state, Rex Tillersen.
        39. United Nations appointed Christine Schraner Burgener of Switzerland as UN's new special envoy on Myanmar.
        40. Viktor Orban has been re-elected as Prime Minister of Hungary (Central Europe).

        1. 65th National Film Awards -
          1. Feature Film panel was headed by filmmaker Shekhar Kapur and Non- Feature Film panel was headed by Nakul Kamte.
          2. Awards -
            1. Dada Saheb Phalke Award - Vinod Khanna
            2. Best Films -
              1. Feature Film - Village Rockstars (Assamese)
              2. Children’s Film - ‘Mhorkya’
              3. Film on Environmental Conservation - ‘Irada’Best Direction: Jayaraj for ‘Bhayanakam’
              4. Feature Film on National Integration: Dhappa (Marathi)
              5. Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment: ‘Baahubali 2: The Conclusion’
            3. Best Director (Feature Film) - Jayaraj for Bhayanakam (Malayalam)
            4. Best Director (Non-Feature Film) - Nagraj Manjule for Pavsacha Nibandh
            5. Best Actress - Sridevi for ‘Mom’
            6. Best Actor - Riddhi Sen for ‘Nagar Kirtan’
            7. Special Jury Award (Feature) ‘Nagarkirtan’ (Bengali) directed.
            8. Special Jury Award (Non-Feature) - A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings And Monday. 
            9. Best Lyrics - Muthurathinam
            10. Best Music Direction - AR Rahman for ‘Katru Veliyidayi’
            11. Best Female Playback Singer - Sashaa Tirupati for ‘Kaatru Veliyidayi’
            12. Best Male Playback Singer - K.J Yesudas for song ‘Poy Maranja Kalam’ from ‘Viswasapoorvam Mansoor’
            13. Best Child Artist - Anita Das for ‘Village Rockstar’
            14. Best Regional Films -
              1. Hindi - Newton
              2. Ladakh - Walking With The Wind
              3. Lakshadwee - Sinjar
              4. Tulu - Paddayi
              5. Marathi - Kachcha Limboo
              6. Malayalam - Thondimuthalum Driksakshiyum
              7. Kannada - Hebbettu Ramakka
              8. Bengali - Mayurakshi
              9. Assamese - Ishu
              10. Telugu - Ghazi
              11. Gujarati - Dhh
              12. Odiya: Hello Arsi
            15. Other Awards -
              1. Best Editing - Rima Das for ‘Village Rockstar’
              2. Best Action Direction - ‘Baahubali 2: The Conclusion’
              3. Best Choreography - Ganesh Acharya for ‘Toilet Ek Prem Katha’
              4. Best Special Effects - ‘Baahubali 2: The Conclusion’
              5. Best Screenplay Original - Thondimuthalum Driksakshiyum
              6. Best Screenplay Adapted - Bhayanakam
              7. Best Cinematography - Bhayanakam
              8. Indira Gandhi Award For Best Debut Film Of A Director in Feature Film Category - Jasari language movie ‘Sinjar’ directed by Pampally.
              9. Best Debut Film of a Director in the Non Feature Film category - ‘Water Baby’ directed by Pia Shah
              10. Best Film Critic award - Giridhar Jha
              11. Special Mention Award - Sunil Mishra
              12. Best Book on Cinema - Matmagi Manipur - The first Manipuri Feature Film authored by Bobby Wahengbam.
        2. Actress Anushka Sharma will be awarded Dadasaheb Phalke Excellence Award by Mumbai-based Dadasaheb Phalke Foundation organisation. Note that it is different from Government of India instituted Dadasaheb Phalke Award, given during National Awards ceremony held annually.
        3. BCCI panel recommended former India women’s team captain Diana Edulji for CK Nayudu Lifetime Achievement Award. Former India opener late Pankaj Roy will also be awarded posthumously.
        4. Bradley Cooper will receive 32nd annual American Cinematheque Award by The Hollywood organisation.
        5. Chhattisgarh bagged State of the Year Award for its progress in business and services activities in various sectors, at India Business Leader Awards (IBLA).
        6. Dadasaheb Phalke Excellence Awards 2018 (Note that it is different from Government of India instituted Dadasaheb Phalke Award, given during National Awards ceremony held annually) -
          1. Best actor (male) - Shahid Kapoor
          2. Best actor people's choice award - Ranveer Singh
          3. Entertainer of the year - Kartik Aryan
          4. Best actress (critics) - Aditi Rao Hydari
          5. Lifetime achievement award - Simi GRewal
          6. Pride of Indian cinema - Sanjay Dutt
          7. Best director - Ashwiny Iyer Tiwari
          8. Outstanding performance - male - Raj Kumar Rao, Rana Daggubati
          9. Outstanding performance - female - Tamannahh Bhatia, Kriti Sanon
          10. Best actor (male) Marathi - Vaibhav Tatwawaadi
          11. Best actor (female) Marathi - Pooja Sawant
          12. Best comic role: Tusshar Kapoor
          13. Best lyricist - Manoj Muntashir
          14. Iconic contribution towards music: Hans Raj Hans
          15. Versatile singer: Rani Hazarika
          16. Best performance in a short film - Divya Khosla Kumar
        7. Egyptian photojournalist Mahmoud Abu Zeid popularly known as Shawkan, will be awarded United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) World Press Freedom Prize for 2018. He was arrested in August 2013 for covering deadly demonstration at Rabaa Al-Adawiya Square in Cairo (Egypt’s capital) between security forces and supporters of ousted Islamist president Mohammed Morsi.
        8. Electronic dance music artiste Anish Sood became first Indian artiste to win Best Electronica/Dance Single at 16th Annual Independent Music Awards (IMA) in London.
        9. Gujarati poet and playwright Sitanshu Yashaschandra has been chosen for 2017 Saraswati Samman (27th) for his collection of verses (poetry) titled Vakhar, published in 2009.
        10. Health Minister J P Nadda conferred way Kayakal Awards 2017-18 to winning public health facilities for their work in maintaining high standards of sanitation and hygiene All India Institutes of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Delhi got the first prize of Rs. 2.5 crore under Central Government Hospitals A category. NEIGRIHMS (Shillong) adjudged winner in Group B category and got 1.5 crores.
        11. Indu Jain, chairman of Bennett, Coleman & Co, India’s largest media house, received All India Management Association’s (AIMA’s) annual award for lifetime contribution to media.
        12. Industrial Awards (April 2018)-
          1. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is awarded National Intellectual Property (IP) Award 2018 in category Top R&D Institution / Organization for Patents and Commercialization.
          2. Agrochemical Firm Parijat Industries has been conferred Sarvashrestha Suraksha Puraskar gold award 2017.
        13. Kutch (Gujarat) based Bhuj Mercantile Cooperative Bank won Banco Award for best performing cooperative bank. It also stood third in category at National level. Banco Award is given anually to top performing banks in cooperative banking sector.
        14. Lalit Kala Akademi conferred awards of 1st Print Biennale India 2018 (PBI) in New Delhi. Arup Kumar Kuity (Andhra Pradesh), Satya Narayana Gavara (Andhra Pradesh), Preya Bhagat (Uttar Pradesh), Purvi Parmar (Gujrat) and Sonal Varshneya (Uttar Pradesh) were awardees.
        15. Madhya Pradesh is named as Most Film Friendly State for its efforts Including creating a well-structured web site, film friendly infrastructure, offering incentives etc. Jury was headed by Ramesh Sippy. Uttarakhand is given a Special Mention Certificate to recognize efforts made by State towards creating a film friendly environment. Awards will be conferred along with National Film Awards on May 3, 2018.
        16. Nadiya Shafi, video reporter from Srinagar received 2018’s ‘Martha Farrell Award for Excellence in Women’s Empowerment’, for her contribution to gender equality. It has been instituted in memory of Dr. Martha Farrell, an eminent activist for gender equality and women’s empowerment.
        17. Noted Bollywood actor Dharmendra will be conferred with Raj Kapoor Lifetime Achievement award and filmmaker Rajkumar Hirani will be conferred with Raj Kapoor Special Contribution award. These awards are instituted by Maharashtra state government, given away at 55th Maharashtra state Marathi Film Festival.
        18. Noted lyricist Javed Akhtar received Shanti Doot award by Sankat Mochan Hanuman Mandir Trust in Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh).
        19. PM Narendra Modi honoured Manipur’s Karang as first cashless island of country. Due to efforts of administration, various processes have been digitazed and automated, with more transparency. Other honours/awards -
          1. Banka district administration in Bihar – Reinventing education using technology.
          2. Assam’s Dhemaji and Telangana’s Karimnagar – best implementation of ‘Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushal Yojana’.
          3. Himachal Pradesh’s Kangra and Madhya Pradesh’s Neemuch – Best implementation of Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Gramin).
        20. President Ram Nath Kovind conferred Gallantry and Distinguished Service Awards -
          1. 3 Kirti Chakras -
            1. Pramod kumar (posthumous)
            2. Giris gurung (posthumous)
            3. Preetam Singh Kunwar
          2. 13 Shaurya Chakras -
            1. Gosavi Kunal Munnagir (posthumous)
            2. Raghubeer Singh (posthumous)
            3. Kashmir singh
            4. Shabir ahmed
            5. Vikash jakhar
            6. Riyazalam ansari
            7. Deepak ale
            8. Pradeep shoury arya
            9. Manchu
            10. Rabindra thapa
            11. Narender singh
            12. Akhil raj rv
            13. Devendra Mehta Param
          3. 13 Param Vishisht Seva Medals
          4. 2 UttamYudhSeva Medals
          5. 2 Bar to Ati Vishisht Seva Medals
          6. 26 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals
        21. Pulitzer Prizes 2018 (annual award for achievements in journalism, literature, and musical composition in USA) -
          1. Letters, Drama & Music -
            1. Fiction - Less, by Andrew Sean Greer.
            2. Drama - Cost of Living, by Martyna Majok.
            3. History - The Gulf: The Making of an American Sea, by Jack E. Davis (Liveright/W.W. Norton).
            4. Biography or Autobiography - Prairie Fires: The American Dreams of Laura Ingalls Wilder, by Caroline Fraser
            5. Poetry - Half-light: Collected Poems 1965-2016, by Frank Bidart.
            6. General Nonfiction - Locking Up Our Own: Crime and Punishment in Black America by James Forman Jr
            7. Music - Kendrick Lamar
          2. Journalism -
            1. Public Service - New York Times.
            2. Breaking News Reporting - Staff of The Press Democrat, Santa Rosa, Calif.
            3. Investigative Reporting - The Washington Post
            4. Explanatory Reporting - The Arizona Republic and USA Today Network
            5. Local Reporting - The Cincinnati Enquirer Staff
            6. National Reporting - New York Times and Washington Post
            7. International Reporting - Clare Baldwin, Andrew R.C. Marshall and Manuel Mogato of Reuters
            8. Feature Writing - Rachel Kaadzi Ghansah, freelance reporter, GQ
            9. Commentary - John Archibald of Alabama Media Group, Birmingham, Ala.
            10. Criticism - Jerry Saltz of New York magazine
            11. Editorial Writing - Andie Dominick of The Des Moines Register.
            12. Editorial Cartooning - Jake Halpern, freelance writer and Michael Sloan, freelance cartoonist, New York Times.
            13. Breaking News Photography - Ryan Kelly of The Daily Progress
            14. Feature Photography - Photography Staff of Reuters
        22. Rana Kapoor, MD and CEO of Yes Bank, has been given India Talent Management Award 2018 by TV news channel CNBC-TV18 for fostering an entrepreneurial spirit and best practices at the bank.
        23. Siddharth Varadarajan, founding editor of The Wire won Shorenstein Journalism Award, given annually by Stanford University’s Walter H. Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center.
        24. West Bengal's Digambarpur Gram Panchayat (GP) won Central Govt’s award for best Gram Panchayat in country, as per a survey conducted by Ministry of Panchayati Raj. Additionally, Jammu and Kashmir's Budgam district has been shortlisted for Prime Minister Narendra Modi's excellence award for promoting digital payments and cashless economy.

        1. Bihar CM Nitish Kumar released three books based on Mahatma Gandhi’s Champaran movement of 1917 -
          1. Mister M K Gandhi Ki Champaran Diary’ by Arvind Mohan
          2. Champaran Andolan 1917’ edited by Ashutosh Partheshwar
          3. Pir Muhammad Munis: Kalam Ka Satyagrahi’ collected and edited by Srikant.
        2. Book Adi Shankaracharya: Hinduism’s Greatest Thinker, written by Pavan Varma.
        3. Book My Journey from Marxism-Leninism to Nehruvian Socialism by former Planning Commission and Finance Commission member C H Hanumantha Rao has been released.
        4. Book Winning like Sachin: Think & Succeed like Tendulkar authored by Devendra Prabhudesai has bee released.

        1. A Committee headed by Justice Rajesh Bindal (Judge in Chandigarh High Court), submitted its report today on legal issues related to inter country removal & retention of children. Stressing upon need for mediation as the first step, Committee recommended establishing an ‘Inter Country Parental Child Removal Disputes Resolution Authority’.
        2. Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) constituted 5-member working group (committee) to examine taxation aspects related to High Net Worth Individuals (HNWIs) who are migrating abroad to other jurisdictions. It will be headed by Pragya Sahay Saksena.
        3. Government constituted a Task Force under chairmanship of Jayant Sinha (Minister of State for Civil Aviation) for fast-tracking roll-out of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology.
        4. Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) constituted 12-member committee to review enforcement of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) provisions under Companies Act 2013. It will be headed by Manmohan Juneja.
        5. Ministry of Human Resource Development constituted a committee under Chairmanship of Gujarat Education Minister Bhupendrasinh Chudasama to Suggest Way to Make Mathematics study easier for students.
        6. Ministry of Human Resource Development has constituted a Committee to examine entire system of conducting Class X and Class XII examination conducted by CBSE with a view to prevent leakages, to be headed by Vinay Sheel Oberoi.
        7. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (I&B) constituted 10-member committee to regulate online portals, including news websites, entertainment sites and media aggregators. Additionally
        8. RBI constituted an inter-departmental group to provide guidance on feasibility to introduce fiat digital currency backed by it.
          1. Fiat Digital Currency (Central bank digital currency) is digital form of fiat money which is currency established as money by government regulation. As opposed to private digital tokens, fiat digital currency will be issued by central bank. Fiat Digital Currency will constitute liability of central bank, and will be in circulation in addition to widely used paper and metallic currency.

        1. 5 April - National Maritime Day in India. It commemorates maiden voyage of first Indian owned ship SS Loyalty (first ship of Scindia Steam Navigation Company) sailed from Bombay to London on 5th April 1919. 2018 theme is Indian Ocean-An Ocean of opportunity.
        2. Apr 07 - WHO World Health Day. 2018 theme is Universal Health Coverage: everyone, everywhere.
        3. Apr 1 - Establishment Day of Reserve Bank of India (RBI). It was formed in 1935.
        4. Apr 11 - National Safe Motherhood Day (NSMD). 2018 theme is Respectful Maternity Care.
        5. Apr 12 - International Day of Human Space Flight & World Aviation and Cosmonautics Day. On 12th April 1961, Yuri Gagarin of Soviet Union, performed first manned flight to space on a Vostok-1 spaceship.
        6. Apr 13, 2018 Marks 99th Anniversary of Jallianwallah Bagh Massacre. Troops of British Indian Army under command of Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of Baishakhi pilgrims gathered There.
        7. Apr 14 - Birth Anniversary of B R Ambedkar. He was Independent India's first law minister and principal architect of Constitution of India. Beginning 2018, it will be observed as Social Justice Day in India.
          1. On this Occasion, Book Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar: Vyakti Nahin Sankalp has been released.
          2. PM Narendra Modi Launched several development initiatives at this occasion -
            1. Inaugurated Dr Ambedkar National Memorial in New Delhi.
            2. Inaugurated a Health and Wellness Centre in Bijapur (Chhattisgarh) to mark launch of Government’s ambitious Health Assurance Programme – Ayushman Bharat. Under It -
              1. Sub centres and primary health centres at 1.5 lakh places will be developed as Health and Wellness Centres by 2022.
              2. Will provide health cover of INR 5 lakh to 10 crore households (50 Crore People). It is world’s largest government-funded health care programme.
              3. Per family premium will be INR 1000 - 12000 will be borne by central and state governments.
              4. NHPS will replace RSBY (Rashtriya Swasthaya Bima Yojana). In RSBY, Government provided medical expenses help of up to INR 30000 to BPL Families.
            3. Launched Van Dhan Yojana that aims at empowering tribal communities. It envisages a mechanism for marketing of Minor Forest Produce through Minimum Support Price and development of value chain for MFP.
            4. Launched Gram Swaraj Abhiyan that would ensure that all development initiatives launched by Government in the last four years, reach the poor and disadvantaged sections of society.
        8. Apr 15 - Statehood Day of Himachal Pradesh. It was formed on Apr 15, 1948.
        9. Apr 18 - World Heritage Day. 2018 theme is Heritage for Generations. World Heritage Day was announced by International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) in 1982.
        10. Apr 19 - World Liver Day (WLD). 2018 theme is Riding New Waves in Liver Diagnosis, Staging & Treatment.
        11. Apr 21 - National Civil Services Day. On this day in 1947, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (independent India's first home minister) addressed India's first batch of civil servants. This year observance of the day focussed on ‘Evolving Strategies for Transforming Aspirational Districts’. It is also observed as National Secretaries day and World Creativity and Innovation Day (WCID).
        12. Apr 22 - World Earth Day. 2018 Theme is End Plastic Pollution.
        13. Apr 23 - Khongjom Day observed in Manipur. It remembers martyrs of Manipur who sacrificed their lives in last battle of independence known as ‘Khongjom War’ against Britishers on 23rd April 1891.
        14. Apr 23 - World Book and Copyright Day and World English Language Day. World Book Capital for 2018 is Athens, Greece.
        15. Apr 24 - National Panchayati Raj Day. He launched Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan at this occasion. This day marks passing of Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act 1992 that came into force on 24 April 1993. It permitted states to provide Village panchayats with necessary powers to make them function as units of self-government. First National Panchayati Raj Day was celebrated in 2010. Apr 24 is also observed as World Lab Animals Day.
        16. Apr 28 - World Day for Safety and Health at Work. 2018 theme is Occupational safety health (OSH) vulnerability of young workers.
        17. Apr 29 - International Dance Day. It marks birthday of Jean-Georges Noverre, creator of modern ballet.
        18. Apr 4 - International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance in Mine Action. 2018 Theme is Advancing protection, Peace and Development.
        19. Apr 5 - Birth Anniversary of Noted Indian politician Babu Jagjivan Ram, observed as Samta Diwas.
        20. Apr 6 - International Day of Sport for Development and Peace.
        21. April 10 - World Homoeopathy Day. A two-day scientific convention is being organised in New Delhi by Ministry of AYUSH on This occasion. It pays tribute to Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann, founder of Homeopathy system of medicine.
        22. April 17 - World Haemophilia Day. 2018 theme is Sharing Knowledge Makes Us Stronger.
        23. April 2 - World Autism Awareness Day. 2018 theme is Empowering Women and Girls with Autism.
        24. April 2 is Foundation day of SIDBI (Small Industries Development Bank of India). On this occasion, Samridhi - The Virtual Assistant and Bankability Kit (in partnership with Bank of Baroda and IDBI Bank).
        25. April 26 - World Intellectual Property Day. It is Celebrated to learn about role that intellectual property rights (patents, trademarks, industrial designs, copyright) play in encouraging innovation and creativity. Theme for 2018 is 'Powering change: Women in innovation and creativity'.
        26. April 8 - International Romani Day. It marks Romani culture and raise awareness of the issues facing Romani people.
        27. Utkal Diwas - April 1. It is Formation of state of Odisha as a separate province on this day in 1936. On this occasion, Petroleum Minister Dharmendra Pradhan inaugurated World-Class tourist amenities at Konark Sun Temple in Odisha.

        1. 3rd ship of Landing Craft Utility (LCU) Mk-IV project, named as INLCU L53 has been inducted into Indian Navy.
        2. 4th of 8 Mark IV LCU vessels – L54, built by Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited (GRSE) Kolkata has been Commissioned Into Indian Navy.
        3. 5th Indo-Kyrgyzstan joint training exercise ‘Khanjar V’ concluded in Mizoram.
        4. 6th Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) and Conclave of Chiefs held in Tehran (Iran). Indian Navy Chief Sunil Lanba Visited Iran on this occasion.  IONS was conceived by Indian Navy in 2008.
        5. Bilateral joint training exercise Harimau Shakti 2018 between India and Malaysia Armies will be conducted in Hulu Langat (Malaysia) in April - May 2018.
        6. Coastal security exercise Sagar Kavach held by Indian Coast Guard along Kerala coast to strengthen and assess loopholes in coastal security mechanism.
        7. Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) chaired by Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman approved Acquisitions Worth 3687 crores. It Involves procuring DRDO's NAG Missile System (NAMIS) at cost of INR 524 crores. DAC also approved procurement of thirteen 127 mm calibre guns for Navy, with range of 24 kilometres. These guns guns be procured from BAE Systems of USA, for over 3000 crores.
        8. Government formed a new integrated institutional mechanism, Defence Planning Committee (DPC) to reform process of higher defence planning. It is expected to drive military and national security strategy, draft capability development plans and guide and accelerate defence equipment acquisitions. It will be under chairmanship of National Security Advisor Ajit Doval.
        9. Indian Air Force (IAF) conducted Exercise Gaganshakti 2018 as an air combat exercise along Pakistan, China borders.
        10. Indian Army signed MoU with HDFC Bank and Axis Bank for Defence Salary Package, as renewed version of first MoU signed 2011 and renewed in March 2015. It is tailor made to suit requirements of defence personnel.
        11. Indian Navy conducted multi-agency humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR) exercise named Chakravat (cyclone) with coordination of Kerala Government off Kochi Coast.
        12. Indigenously developed Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas successfully fired an air-to-air beyond visual range (BVR) missile, demonstrating its overall capability as an effective combat jet.
        13. Indo-Korean Joint Coast Guards Exercise Sahyog- Hyeoblyeog 2018 conducted off Chennai coast (Tamil Nadu).
        14. Larsen & Toubro (L&T) and Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) signed an MoU to cater to needs of evolving domestic and export markets for defence products and systems, to help make India self-reliant in defence sector.

        1. AU Small Finance Bank launched mobile app named ‘Kamao’ (earn), looking to improve its business through crowd-sourcing, involving employees, customers and non-customers. Bank will encourage stakeholders to refer prospective customers, who want to open deposit accounts or get loans, on app and win rewards.
        2. As per Commerce Ministry, India’s global trade in 2017-18 stood at $767.9 billion, 16.32 % up as compared to $660.2 billion in 2016-17. Trade with Latin American Countries (LAC) recorded healthy growth of 19.63 % in 2017-18, most with Bolivia ($253 million in 2016-17 to $772.44 million in 2017-18).
        3. As per London-based wireless coverage mapping Company OpenSignal, Bharti Airtel has highest 4G download speed among Indian telecom operators with speed of 9.31 MBPS, followed by Idea Cellular (7.27 mbps), Vodafone (6.98 mbps) and Reliance Jio (5.13mbps). Jio topped in terms of 4G network coverage.
        4. As per TRA Brand Trust Report 2018, State Bank of India is most-trusted bank (both public and private sector) and ICICI topped among private ones.
        5. As per World Bank Global Findex Report 2017 -
          1. 55 % of new bank accounts opened globally between 2014-17 are from India. India witnessed a great jump in account ownership during 2014-2017 as 80 % Indians owned a bank account in 2017, compared to only 35 % bank account holders in 2011.
        6. Asian Development Bank (ADB) agreed to give an aid of 1,700 crore rupees to Uttarakhand for infrastructure development and creation of sewerage treatment facilities in urban areas.
        7. Asian Inrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) approved $140 Million Loan to improve Rural Connectivity in Madhya pradesh, aimed at benefitting 1.5 Million Rural residents of 5640 Villages in Madhya Pradesh.
        8. Cab Aggregator Ola acquired Mumbai-based end transport ticketing and commuting app Ridlr, to complement Ola’s efforts to integrate its mobility platform with public transportation infrastructure.
        9. Cab Aggregator Ola introduced in-trip insurance programme for all its customers, starting at just Re 1 and covering up to 500000. This will cover for loss of belongings, missed flights, and medical expenses. Ola partnered with Acko General Insurance and ICICI Lombard General Insurance for this in-trip insurance programme.
        10. Cabinet Approvals on Apr 21, 2018 -
          1. CCEA (Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs) Approvals -
            1. Approved Restructured Centrally Sponsored Scheme Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan (RGSA) for period 01-04-2018 to 31-03-2022 at cost of INR 7255.50 crores with Central Share of 4500 crore and States' Share of INR 2755.50 crores.
              1. National Level activities will include National Plan of Technical Assistance, Mission Mode project on e-Panchayat, Incentivization of Panchayats and State component will be Capacity Building of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs).
              2. State funding pattern for State Component will be 60:40 for all States, except North East and Hill States where Centre:State funding pattern will be 90:10 and For UTs, Central share will be 100%.
              3. Sunset date for RGSA will be 31-03-2030.
              4. RGSA will help over 2.55 lakh Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) to develop governance capabilities to deliver on SDGs through inclusive local governance with focus on optimum utilisation of available resources.
              5. RGSA will strengthen Gram Sabhas to function as effective institutions with social inclusion of citizens particularly the vulnerable groups. It will establish institutional structure for capacity building of PRIs with adequate human resources and infrastructure.
              6. PM Narendra Modi will Launch RGSA from Mandla (Madhya Pradesh), on 24th April (National Panchayati Raj Day).
        11. Central Bureau of Excise and Customs (CBEC) imposed a 10% duty on imports of key smartphone components such as populated printed circuit boards (PCBs), camera modules and connectors, up from 0% import duty Currently.
          1. Import duties are generally imposed to discourage imports and promote local manufaturing units.
        12. Central Government, Government of Maharashtra and World Bank signed today US$ 420 million project to help Small and Marginal farmers in Marathwada and Vidarbha regions of Maharashtra, to help increase climate resilient practices in agriculture. It will benefit over 7 million people spread over an area of 3.0 million ha and cover 5,142 villages across 15 most climate vulnerable districts of region. This loan from International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) has 6-year grace period, and a maturity of 24 years.
        13. Credit rating agency Fitch kept India’s sovereign rating unchanged at ‘BBB-‘ with stable outlook. This rating is at junk bond or lowest investment grade with stable outlook. BBB- rating balances India’s medium-term growth outlook and favourable external balances with weak fiscal finances and some lagging structural factors.
        14. Department of Biotechnology (DBT) under Ministry of Science & Technology initiated National Biopharma Mission which is implemented by Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC), to strengthen emerging biotechnology sector in India.
          1. Mission has been approved at a total cost of US$250 million for five years with 50% funding through World Bank Loan. Legal agreement between BIRAC and IBRD (World Bank) has been signed.
        15. Digital Wallet Firm Paytm launched its offline payments solution - Paytm Tap Card, to provide seamless payments solutions for non-internet customers. This card uses Near Field Communication (NFC) technology to enable safe and convenient digital payments.
        16. Digital payments company PayPal and Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO) signed an agreement for promotion of outbound shipments among small and medium enterprises (SMEs). PayPal will work with FIEO to educate SMEs on how to leverage global opportunities, help them receive money in a safe and timely manner with PayPal products.
        17. Export-Import Bank of India (Exim Bank) will provide loans worth about US $4.5 billion to Bangladesh for financing of various social and infrastructure projects. In this regard, Exim Bank signed agreement with Bangladesh Government in October 2017 to extend this LoC facility.
        18. Fashion e-retailer Myntra acquired Witworks, a Bengaluru based technology startup, involved in developing smart wearable devices and their underlying software.
        19. Finance Ministry in consultation with RBI launched first tranche of sovereign gold bonds (SGBs) for current fiscal (FY 2018-19), to be sold through banks, designated post offices and recognised stock exchanges. Features are-
          1. Sl. No.
            In multiples of gram(s) of gold with a basic unit of 1 gram. Minimum permissible investment will be 1 gram of gold.
            8 years with exit option in 5th, 6th and 7th year, to be exercised on interest payment dates.
            Maximum limit
            Maximum limit shall be 4 KG for individual, 4 Kg for HUF and 20 Kg for trusts and similar entities per fisca.
            Payment option
            Online / Offline (upto 20000) . Issue price of Gold Bonds will be INR 50 per gram less for those who subscribe online and pay digitally.
            Interest rate
            The investors will be compensated at a fixed rate of 2.50 per cent per annum payable semi-annually on the nominal value.
            Tax treatment
            The interest on Gold Bonds shall be taxable as per the provision of Income Tax Act, 1961 (43 of 1961). Capital gains tax arising on redemption of SGB to an individual has been exempted
            Commission for distribution of bond shall be paid at the rate of 1% of the total subscription and receiving offices shall share at least 50% of commission so received with agents for the business procured through them.
        20. Fugitive Economic Offenders Ordinance 2018 came into force as President Ram Nath Kovind gave his assent to Cabinet’s decision to promulgate the said Ordinance.
          1. It empowers authorities to attach and confiscate (ज़ब्त करना) properties of economic offenders and deter them from evading Indian law by remaining outside India.
          2. A Fugitive Economic Offender is a person against whom an arrest warrant has been issued in respect of a scheduled offence and who has left India so as to avoid criminal prosecution.
          3. To ensure that Courts are not over-burdened with such cases, only those cases where total value involved in such offences is 100 crore rupees or more, is within purview of this Ordinance.
          4. President Ram Nath Kovind also promulgated an ordinance that provides for stringent punishment, including death penalty, for those convicted of raping girls aged below 12 years. Jammu and Kashmir state Govt. also approved Criminal Law (Amendment) Ordinance 2018 that provides death penalty to rapists of children below age of 12 years.
        21. Global Consultancy Firm in its report Titled India Soars Higher stated that India has highest growth rate amongst Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) economies.
        22. Global Findex Report released by World Bank said that about 19 Crore Indian adults still don’t have a bank account, second only to China, despite account ownership more than doubling from 35 % in 2011 to 80 % in 2017.
        23. Government amended Income Tax rules that will now allow transgenders to be recognised as an independent category of applicants for obtaining a Permanent Account Number (PAN).
        24. HDFC Bank launched IRA (Interactive Robotic Assistant) 2.0, interactive humanoid at Koramangala Branch in Bengaluru, in tech partnership with Invento Makerspaces and Senseforth Technologies. It aims to enhance user experience for customers.paytm .
        25. ICICI Bank became first Indian bank to go live on SWIFT’s Global Payment Innovation, an improved cross-border payments service. It enables real-time payments tracking across correspondent banks & has a facility to track payments instructions across correspondent banks globally.
        26. IT Firm HCL acquired C3i Solutions for USD 60 million, to enhance HCL’s growth in life sciences and consumer services. C3i Solutions is a wholly owned, independently operated subsidiary of Merck & Co, which is known as MSD outside US and Canada.
        27. IT Firm Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) became first Indian company to reach $100 billion market capitalisation (m-cap) milestone. With this, TCS joined world’s 100 most valued organizations and now ranks 97th.
        28. India signed $210 million loan agreement with World Bank for Madhya Pradesh Rural Connectivity Project. The Project will cover 10,510 km stretch of rural roads in Madhya Pradesh that fall under Chief Minister’s Gram Sadak Yojana (CMGSY) program.
        29. India signed a Loan Agreement of US$ 125 Million with World bank for IBRD credit for Innovate in India for Inclusiveness Project.
        30. India signed a Loan Agreement of USD 48 million with World Bank's IBRD (nternational Bank for Reconstruction and Development) for Meghalaya Community - Led Landscapes Management Project (MCLLMP).
        31. Indian Bank introduced Public Financial Management System (PFMS) and ‘Bharat QR’ facility. PFMS aims to benefit government agencies for utilising payment service. Bharat QR is a mobile payment collection scheme to accept digital payments.
        32. Indian GDP Forecasts (April 2018) -
          1. Asian Development Bank (ADB) projected India’s GDP Growth Rate to rise to 7.3% in FY 2018 - 19 and 7.6% in 2019-20.
          2. As per World Bank’s South Asia Economic Focus Spring 2018 report, Indian economy has recovered from impact of demonetisation and theintroduction of the Goods and Services Tax regime and is projected to grow by 7.3 % in 2018 and 7.5 percent in 2019. India’s growth is expected to drive South Asia’s growth rate to 6.9 % in 2018 and 7.1 % in 2019. South Asia includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
            1. As Per world Bank, India’s GDP clocked in $2.6 trillion, becoming 6th in World, after USA, China, Japan, Germany and UK.
          3. Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) Predicted India’s GDP to grow at 7.3-7.7% during 2018-19.
          4. International Monetary Fund (IMF) in its World Economic Outlook (WEO) projected India to grow at 7.4% in 2018 and 7.8% in 2019.
          5. Japanese financial services Firm Nomura stated that India’s GDP growth will be 7.8 % in first half of 2018-19.
          6. Germany's Deutsche Bank Predicted GDP growth of 7.5% for India this financial year.
        33. Indian Overseas Bank (IOB) launched three ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT)-based customer service initiatives in Chennai (Tamil Nadu), Including a sound pressure level meter and Missed Call Feedback system.
        34. Indus Towers and Bharti Infratel Ltd announced their Merger, that will create world’s second-largest mobile masts company by numbers of towers, 2nd only to China Tower. It will have presence throughout India with more than 163,000 towers, worth over 14.6 Billion USD. Bharti Airtel will have a stake of 33.8 % to 37.2 % in combined entity.
        35. IndusInd Bank launched a pilot project to use WhatsApp for customer service, wherein customers can save official WhatsApp number of bank and initiate conversation. Customers can avail several services including checking balance, obtain mini statements through WhatsApp.
        36. IndusInd Bank received RBI's approval to buy securities services arm of IL&FS (Infrastructure Leasing and Financial Services), for which agreemenent was signed In March 2017.
        37. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India signed MOU with Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs to collaborate for research and publication, advancement of knowledge, capacity building, awareness and advocacy initiatives among others.
        38. Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) Bank launched Add on Working Capital GST as a special financing scheme to help state industry cope with delay in reimbursement of GST under special tax relief. Under this, revolving credit facility will be extended at most competitive rate of 9 % and with minimum documentation.
        39. Ministry of Commerce and Industry launched FIEO GlobalLinker, a digital platform for MSME exporters to digitise their businesses and join global community of growing businesses, developed by Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO). It is growing global network currently comprising over 140,000 SME firms, seeking business collaboration and growth opportunities.
        40. NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) will raise its long-term on-lending or refinance portfolio to INR 80,000 crore (from 65000 Crores) in current fiscal year, to improve rural economy. Government has also raised authorised capital of NABARD by 6 times to INR 30000 Crores, to increase its lending to the rural economy.
        41. National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) extended credit support of INR 14,690 crore to Rajasthan for 2017-18, under Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF) of NABARD.
        42. National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX ) Group Company National E-Repository Limited (NERL) signed up ICICI Bank and HDFC Bank as repository participants for pledge finance. These banks will offer pledge finance against eNWRs created on NERL’s repository platform commodities stored in warehouses registered with Warehousing Development and Regulatory Authority (WDRA).
        43. National Stock Exchange (NSE) launched its e-Gsec platform which will allow retail investors to invest in government securities. Government Securities are offered to investors through competitive and non-competitive auctions held by RBI on weekly basis.
        44. National Stock Exchange’s (NSEs) India Index Services & Products Ltd (IISL) launched Nifty equity savings index that will serve as benchmark for equity saving funds offered by various mutual funds. It will capture performance of portfolio having exposure to equity, equity arbitrage and debt instruments in similar way to investment philosophy of equity savings funds.
          1. Its components are 30% exposure to Nifty 50 total return index, 30% exposure to equity arbitrage (long position in Nifty 50 total return index and equivalent short position in Nifty 50 futures Index), 30% exposure to Nifty short duration debt index, and 5% exposure to Nifty 1D rate index.
          2. The base date for index is April 1, 2005 and base value is 1,000.
        45. Paytm Payments Bank announced to have over 10 crore KYC compliant customers.
        46. Private sector's ICICI Bank introduced a ‘digital form’ which will help open current accounts in a few hours, to provide a faster and smoother account opening experience to customers by doing away with the hassle of arranging lengthy paper-work.
        47. Punjab National Bank (PNB) launched several products to mark its 124th foundation day. It also partnered with expense management app WALNUT.
        48. RBI directed all regulated entities including banks not to provide services to businesses dealing in virtual currencies like bitcoins, so as to protect consumers and check money laundering.
        49. RBI dropped Axis Bank, Karur Vyasa and South Indian Bank from list of banks it has cleared to import Bullions in current financial year.
          1. Bullion is gold, silver, or other precious metals in the form of bars or ingots.
        50. RBI imposed restrictions on Mumbai-based City Co-operative Bank, limiting per account withdrawls to INR 1000. Bank will also not be able to accept fresh deposits, disburse loans or borrow funds without RBI approval.
        51. RBI increased bond investment limit for foreign portfolio investors (FPI) by a percentage point in two phases, to will allow foreigners about Rs 1.4 trillion of extra play in Indian bonds by FY20.
          1. Limit for FPI investment in central government securities (G-secs) would be increased by 0.5 % to 5.5 % of outstanding stock of securities in 2018-19 and 6 % of outstanding stock of securities in 2019-20.
          2. Also, general and long-term investors would have equal share in government bond investment limit for 2018-19. Earlier, they had an investment ratio of 25:75.
        52. RBI revised Know Your Customer (KYC) guidelines, making linking of Aadhaar ID to bank accounts mandatory. In amended Customer Due Diligence procedure, Aadhaar number, PAN or Form No. 60 need to be obtained from an individual who is eligible for applying for biometric ID.
        53. RBI switched back to gross domestic product (GDP)-based measure to offer its growth estimates from the gross value added (GVA) methodology, citing global best practices.
          1. Government had started analysing growth estimates using GVA methodology from January 2015 and had also changed the base year to 2018 from January.
          2. GVA gives a picture of economic activity from producers' side, GDP model gives picture from consumers' / demand perspective.
          3. In recent first bi-monthly policy of new fiscal year 2018-19, RBI left key rates unchanged, citing rising inflation worries in first half. RBI said GDP is projected to strengthen from 6.6 % in FY18 to 7.4 % in FY19. Key Policy Rates -
            1. Repo rate - 6%. It is rate at which RBI lends to its clients generally against government securities.
            2. Reverse Repo Rate - 5.75%. It is rate at which banks lend funds to RBI.
            3. Marginal Standing Facility (MSF) Rate - 6.25%. It is rate at which scheduled banks can borrow funds overnight from RBI against government securities.
            4. Bank Rate - 6.25%. It is rate charged by central bank for lending funds to commercial banks.
            5. Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) - 4%. It is amount of funds that banks have to keep with RBI.
            6. Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) - 19.5%. It is amount that banks have to maintain a stipulated proportion of their net demand and time liabilities (NDTL) in form of liquid assets like cash, gold and unencumbered securities etc.
        54. Randstad Employer Brand Research (REBR) 2018 stated that Microsoft India is most attractive employer brand in India this year, followed by Amazon India.
        55. Reliance Industries owned Jio Payments Bank commenced operations as India's 6th payments bank. No details relaed to interest rates and other terms have been disclosed so far. Other Payments banks in India -
          1. Paytm Payments Bank - Interest Rate of 4 %.
          2. Airtel Payments Bank - Interest rate of 5.5% in its saving account. Initially, Airtel Payment Bank was giving 7.5%s.
          3. Fino Payments Bank - Interest Rate of 4 %.
          4. India Post Payments Bank - Different interest rate according to deposited amount -
            1. Deposit upto 25,000 – 4.5%
            2. Deposit upto 50,000 – 5 %
            3. Upto 1,00,000 – 5.5%
          5. Idea Payments Bank
        56. Reliance Infrastructure (RInfra) won INR 1081 crores contract from Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) for work in 2 units of Kudankulam project in Tamil Nadu.
        57. Reliance Jio signed agreement to raise nearly INR 3250 crores as samurai term loan from Japan-based banks, with 7 year bullet maturity. This is said to be largest samurai loan (low interest loans from Japanese investors) for an Asian corporate company.
        58. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) deferred adoption of Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS) by commercial banks for year (till April 2019) due to unpreparedness of banks to migrate to the new accounting system.
          1. RBI requested Government to amend Banking Regulation Act, 1949 as format of financial statements as prescribed under Schedule 3 of Act is not amenable to reporting financial statements under Ind-AS.
          2. Ind AS is global accounting practice that lenders are mandated to adopt, on par with International Financial Reporting Standard 9.
          3. Financial Entities follow generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) standards. Corporate entities started complying with IndAS with effect from 1 April 2016. In February 2016, RBI mandated commercial banks, barring regional rural banks to implement Ind AS from April 1, 2018.
          4. RBI was asking banks to submit half-yearly returns based in Ind-AS format. Key change was need to provision accounts based on expected loss, instead of when account turns into a non-performing asset (NPA).
          5. Commercial banks may need up to INR 89000s crores while transiting to Ind-AS regime.
        59. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) imposed INR 3 crore penalty on IDBI Bank for not following RBI’s rules on classification of loans.
        60. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) liberalised External Commercial Borrowings (ECB) Policy by including more sectors, to facilitate cheaper access of overseas funds to Indian companies.
          1. RBI has stipulated uniform, all-in cost ceiling of 450 basis points (bps) over benchmark rate, which, in most cases, is six-month London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR).
          2. RBI increased ECB Liability to Equity Ratio for ECB raised from direct foreign equity holder under automatic route to 7:1, up from 4:1 earlier. This ratio will not be applicable if total of all ECBs raised by entity is up to $5 million or equivalent.
          3. RBI also has allowed duly regulated housing finance companies to raise ECB under all tracks.
        61. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) tightened reporting norms for Liberalised Remittance Scheme (LRS), under which individual can transfer up to US $2,50,000 abroad in a year.
          1. Currently, LRS transactions are permitted by banks based on declaration made by remitter, without any verification or reliable source of information. Now, daily reporting system by Authorised Dealer (AD) banks of transactions undertaken by individuals under LRS has been placed. Banks will mandatorily report daily transactions undertaken by them under LRS.
          2. Liberalised Remittance Scheme (LRS) was launched in February 2004 and allows all resident individuals including minors to freely remit upto US $2,50,000 annually (revised from $25000 Limit Initially).
        62. SBI launched its UK subsidiary, SBI (UK) Limited, with initial capital commitment of 225 million pounds. SBI became he first foreign bank in UK to ringfence (separate) its retail division from its wholesale business.
        63. Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) relaxed algorithm trading norms at commodity derivatives exchanges, raising limit of trading using algorithm trading process up to 100 orders per second by user from the existing limit of 20 orders per second. SEBI also decided to do away with requirement of empanelment of system auditors by exchanges for system audit of algorithmic trading.
        64. Several Budget proposals Implemented from April 1, 2018 -
          1. Reintroduction of tax on long-term capital gains (LTCG) exceeding Rs 1 lakh from sale of shares.
          2. Reduced corporate tax of 25 % on businesses on a turnover of up to INR 250 crores.
          3. Standard deduction of Rs 40,000 in lieu of transport allowance and medical reimbursement.
          4. e-Way Bill system became mandatory from April 1, 2018 for all inter-state movement of goods in India, being implemented under GST regime by GST Network (GSTN) at Portal
            1. EWay Bill is an electronic way bill for movement of goods which can be generated on the eWay Bill Portal. Transport of goods of more than Rs. 50,000 (Single Invoice/bill/delivery challan) in value in a vehicle cannot be made by a registered person without an eway bill.
            2. GST Council had decided to roll-out of the e-way bill starting with inter-state from April 1 and intra-state from April 15, 2018.
            3. E-way bill is an electric document generated on GST Portal, which is a shared information technology (IT) infrastructure between Centre and States; and acts as evidence for movement of goods.
            4. e-way can be cancelled within 24 hours of creation. The recipient can also reject the e-way Bill within validity period of e-way bill or within 72 hours of creation of e-way bill by consignor, whichever is earlier.
        65. Small Industries and Development Bank of India (SIDBI) tied up with Common Service Centre (CSC) to promote micro-enterprises in 115 aspirational districts across country.
        66. Society of Indian Defence Manufacturers (SIDM) and Groupement des Industries Françaises Aeronautiques et Spatiales (GIFAS) signed an MoU on sidelines of a major industrial mission in India in field of aerospace and defence organised by GIFAS with support of SIDM.
        67. State Bank of India (SBI) launched an alternate method of cash withdrawal for its customers, known as Cash@POS initiative. Under it, debit card holders of SBI and all other banks can withdraw cash from PoS machines installed by SBI across various merchant locations. INR 1000 can be withdrwan in Tier I and Tier II cities and INR 2000 in Tier 3 to Tier 6 cities per day per card.
        68. State Bank of India (SBI) will issue and encash Electoral Bonds through its 11 Authorised Branches between May 1 - 10, 2018.
          1. Electoral Bonds can be purchased by any Indian Citizen / Organization to give donations to Political Parties.
          2. Political arties that secured over 1 % of votes in last General Elections, are eligible to receive Electoral Bonds.
        69. State Bank of India Tied up with Satluj Vidyut Nigam Limited (SJVN) to invest INR 80 billion in Arun III hydropower project of Nepal, with 900 megawatts (MW) capacity.
        70. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) unveiled beta version of portal ( to enable consumers see tariffs of different telecom service providers at single place. It aims to provide more transparency and information on multiple tariff offerings by telcos and help consumers.
        71. Yes Bank launched Yes GST, an OD (over draft) facility for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). Through this, an MSME can avail OD up to Rs 1 crore, based on annual turnover, backed by GST returns.
        72. Yes Bank received RBI approval to open 2 representative offices in London and Singapore.
        73. e-commerce Firm Flipkart partnered online travel company MakeMyTrip to offer travel services on its platform. Services of MakeMyTrip's other brands, Goibibo and redBus, will be available to Flipkart consumers as part of deal.

        1.  JLL’s annual global report ‘City Momentum Index’ (CMI) 2018 -
          1. Indian cities dominated short term momentum ranking, with Hyderabad and Bengaluru are at top two positions. Pune ranked fourth, Kolkata (5th) and Delhi (8th).
        2. 11th World Hindi Conference (विश्व हिंदी सम्मेलन) will be hosted by Mauritius in Port Lois in August 2018 with theme Vaishvik Hindi Aur Bharatiy Sanskriti.
        3. 2018 World Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders (RSF)
          1. India ranked 138th (falling 2 positions from 136th in 2017).
          2. Top 5 - Norway (1), Sweden (2), Netherlands (3), Finland (4), Switzerland (5)
          3. North Korea is at Bottom (150th).
          4. Neighbours - Bangladesh (146), Sri Lanka (131), Pakistan (139), Nepal (106)
        4. A three-day international conference on “Accessible Tourism” has been held in Nepal,. During this, Nepal launched first accessible trekking trail for differently abled and elders in Pokhara city. Inaugurated trek is a 1.3 kilometers section of the 14 kilometer hiking path in ridge connecting Sarangkot to Naudanda areas.
        5. According to Migration and Development Brief by World Bank, India retained top position as recipient of remittances with about $69 billion in 2017. India was followed by China ($64 billion), Philippines ($33 billion), Mexico ($31 billion), Nigeria ($22 billion) and Egypt ($20 billion). Global remittance grew 7% to US $613 billion in 2017.
        6. According to Internet Security Threat Report by Symantec, India is third most vulnerable country in terms of risk of cyber threats (malware / spam /ransomware) (with 5.09% global threats). USA (26.61% global threats) is most vulnerable, followed by China (10.95%) in 2017. India is 2nd most impacted by spam and bots attacks, third most impacted by network attacks, and fourth most impacted by ransomware.
        7. According to Steel Users Federation of India (SUFI), India overtook Japan to become world’s second largest producer of crude steel, with China at top.
        8. Airports Council International (ACI) ranked New Delhi’s Indira Gandhi International Airport as 16th in world in terms of traffic volumes. Georgia's Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) ranked as busiest airport in world.
        9. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru temporarily left Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), amid differences over choosing secretary general of the group.
        10. Bangladesh Government ended quota system in government services, that sets aside jobs for some special groups. It has been done after several porests against the same.
        11. Bisket Jatra Festival celebrated in Nepal, believed to have started during Malla dynasty and marks beginning of Nepali new year.
        12. Bloomberg Billionaires List 2018 -
          1. Mukesh Ambani ranked 19th Globally, 3rd in Asia and 1st in Asia with net worth of $38.3 billion. Alibaba co-founder Jack Ma is ranked 14th, Followed by Tencent Founder Pony Ma (Ma Huateng).
          2. Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos is at top ($126 Billion), Followed by Bill Gates ($91 B).
        13. Central Asian Nation Kazakhstan launched a 72-hour-long transit visa free regime for Indian citizens from 17th April 2018 to 31st December 2018.
        14. China introduced China Science and Technology Cloud (CSTC) to provide scientists with accessible, accurate and secure data services to promote research.
        15. China proposed construction of the India-Nepal-China Economic Corridor with multi-dimensional connectivity through Himalayas, during Nepalese foreign minister Pradeep Kumar Gyawali's Visit to China.
        16. China will launch a new meteorological satellite called Fengyun-II 09, to enhance its weather forecasting capabilities.It will be last in Fengyun-II series.
        17. China will launch world’s longest cross-sea bridge, connecting Hong Kong, Macau and mainland China. It will be 55km-long and six lanes wide.
        18. France announced to contribute 61.9 million dollars toward urgent humanitarian aid for Syria.
        19. Google Launched its Home and Mini Bluetooth speakers in India priced at INR 9999 at 4499 Respectively. Google Home and Home Mini can be activated by saying ‘Ok Google’ and can answer user’s general questions.
        20. Index of Economic Freedom 2018 by Heritage Foundation -
          1. India ranked 130th out of 186 economies.
          2. Top 5 - Hong Kong (1), Singapore (2), New Zealand (3), Switzerland (4), Australia (5)
          3. Bottom 5 - North Korea (180), Venezuela (179), Cuba (178), Congo (177), Eritrea (176)
          4. Neighbours - Bangladesh (128), Pakistan (131), Nepal (133), Sri Lanka (111)
        21. India and Bangladesh signed agreement to set up a 129.5 km oil pipeline with capacity of 1 million metric tons per annum. Pipiline will be built from Siliguri Marketing Terminal of Numaligarah Refinery Ltd (NRL) in India to Parbaripur depot of Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC). Other MoUs Included -
          1. Cooperation between India's Prasar Bharati and Bangladesh Betar.
          2. Installation of Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) Urdu Chair in Dhaka University.
          3. Set up language labs in 500 schools in Bangladesh.
          4. Trial run of first container train between India and Bangladesh flagged off from Kolkata.
        22. India and Eritrea (East Africa) signed MoU on Foreign Office Consultations.
        23. India and Finland signed agreement on tax dispute with Nokia under Mutual Agreement Procedure (MAP) system. This involves payment of Rs 1,600 crore, a sum that was deposited with government by Nokia in March 2018. This paves way for the sale of Nokia’s Chennai (Sriperumbudu) plant, which has been shuttered since November 2014.
        24. India and World Expo 2020 signed participants contract for India’s pavilion in World Expo 2020 (Dubai), held once in 5 years.
        25. India emerged as top recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI) from within Commonwealth and is 2nd most lucrative source of investment within 53-member Commonwealth after UK.
        26. India for the first time agreed for most revered Buddhist relics from Sarnath to be taken to Sri Lanka for public exposition on occasion of Vesak festival. This is second time that India has taken initiative to exhibit sacred relics of Lord Buddha in Sri Lanka, after first time in 2012.
        27. India is named second fastest growing country for passenger traffic based on traffic forecasts during 2017-40 by Airports Council International (ACI), after Vietnam 8.5 % growth rate. India has 7.5 % and Iran has 7.3 % Passenger Growth Rate. Recently, ACI ranked Indira Gandhi International Airport in New Delhi at 16th position in the twenty busiest airports in world list.
        28. India is ranked 10th on a new Commonwealth Innovation Index, topped by UK, Singapore and Canada. Index was launched as part of a new Commonwealth Innovation Hub on the sidelines of Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in London (UK). Theme of CHOGM 2018 Towards a Common Future. India was represented by PM Narendra Modi.
          1. Alongside, Malaria Summit was also held in London (United Kingdom), organized by non-profit organisation Malaria No More in conjunction AND Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
          2. 53 Commonwealth Nations adapted Commonwelath Cyber Declaration at summit, to take action on cybersecurity by 2020. It also aims to tackle criminal groups and hostile state actors who pose a global threat to cybersecurity.
          3. Commonwelth Nations also agreed for Britain’s Prince Charles succeeding his mother Queen Elizabeth II as Head of Commonwealth.
          4. India and 3 other countries (Sri Lanka, Mauritius and Malta) participated creating in USD 5 million Commonwealth Small States Trade Finance Facility which will enable small states to obtain easier access to international trade finance to diversify their economies and achieve sustainable development goals. Standard Chartered Bank and Bank of Baroda, are facility managers for this fund. 31 Commonwealth nations classified as small states can avail this facility. Before it is available to all such nations, it will be rolled out on pilot basis in Bahamas, Botswana, Brunei, Dominica, Fiji, Mauritius, Namibia and Seychelles.
        29. India replaced Vietnam to become second largest producer of mobile phones in 2017. Currently, China stands at number one in mobile production around the world.
        30. India won 6 elections to United Nations (UN) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) bodies, and won places on executive boards of four UN bodies.
          1. India won elections to Executive Boards of UN Development Programme (UNDP), UN Population Fund (UNFPA), UN Office for Project Services (UNOPS) and UN-Women. India will serve three-year terms from January 2019 on those executive boards.
          2. India was elected on UN Commission on Population and Development, Social Development, Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.
        31. India, China and other Asian countries will Coordinate to raise voice against Asian premium charged by Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
          1. Asian Premium is extra charge being collected by OPEC countries from Asian countries when selling oil in comparison to western countries. They charge approx 10% extra from Asian Nations as Asian Premium and they give 10% discount to western Nations.
          2. Its a concern for India as for Oil, India is largely dependent on Imports. India sources about 86% of crude oil, 75% of natural gas and 95% of LPG from OPEC member nations.
          3. OPEC is an organization of 14 oil-exporting developing nations. Its headquarters are in Vienna (Austria) and Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia (de facto leader of OPEC), Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Algeria, Angola, Libya, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon, Ecuador and Venezuela. OPEC members account 43% of global oil production and 73% of world’s oil reserves.
        32. Indian Consortium consisting of IOCL, BPCL and HPCL and Saudi Aramco signed an MOU to jointly develop an integrated refinery and petrochemicals complex called Ratnagiri Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd. (RRPCL) in Maharashtra.
          1. It will be capable of processing 1.2 million barrels of crude oil per day (60 million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA)). Project cost is estimated at INR 3 lakh crores (USD 44 billion).
        33. Investment Firm SoftBank signed $930-million deal with China's energy conglomerate Golden Concord (GCL) to produce and sell solar equipment in India. GCL will have 40% stake in joint venture. The project will have a 4 gigawatt-capacity and will produce solar ingots, silicon wafers, batteries, and components.
        34. Iran banned use all cryptocurrencies Inlcuding bitcoin by its banks and financial institutions. Iran Govt stated that it was necessary since cryptocurrencies can be turned into a means for money-laundering and financing terrorism.
        35. Iran, Turkey and Russia held a special Meet in Ankara (Turkey), aiming to speed peace process for Syria and bolster their influence in the country.
        36. Japan activated Amphibious Rapid Deployment Brigade (ARDB), its first marine unit since World War 2. In Japan’s Constitution that was formed after WW 2, it renounced the right to wage war.
        37. Kotak Mahindra Bank overtook SBI to become India’s second-most-valued Bank in terms of market capitalisation. KMB's Market cap rose to 2.23 Lakh Crores. HDFC Remains at top with 5.03 Lakh Crores Market Cap. Bandhan Bank debuted in top 50 Indian Brands with 64000 Crores Market Cap.
        38. Maharashtra government signed MoU with British Council to strengthen educational and cultural cooperation. British Council will expand its existing work in state, where it has trained over 100000 teachers benefitting around five million learners.
        39. Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) will tie up with US and Finland to develop new pollution-forecast system that will help anticipate particulate matter (PM) levels at least two days in advance and at greater resolution.
          1. Currently, System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), run out of Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, serves as apex forecaster of pollution trends in Delhi, Mumbai, Pune and Ahmedabad. It generates likely air quality profile for a day in advance, for these cities.
        40. National Assembly of France passed a controversial immigration law. While government defended the bill as balanced, it has been criticised by rightwingers for being too soft and by leftwingers for being repressive. New law aims for better-controlled immigration, as it reduces waiting time for asylum applications by almost half to six months and makes it easier to deport those turned down as "economic" migrants.
        41. National Gallery of Modern Art (New Delhi) organized an exhibition titled To the End of Land, in collaboration with Embassy of Israel in India, on occasion of 25 years of diplomatic relations with Israel.
        42. National Highways Authority of India took its First International assignment as it signed an agreement for upgradation of Yagyi – Kalewa section of highway in Myanmar, to be completed in 3 years.
        43. New Zealand Govt. banned all new offshore oil exploration permits as a part of Government’s plan to transition towards a carbon-neutral future. Note that existing permits cover an area of 100000 sq km and some still have decades left on their exploration rights.
        44. North Korean leader Kim Jong Un declared that his nation would stop its nuclear tests and intercontinental missile launches and will shut down its atomic test site. This brings relief to global comunity as North Korea has been continuously doing Nuclear tests and aggressively enhancing its nuclear capabilities over past few years.
          1. In a historic first, North Korean leader Kim Jong Un crossed border that separates 2 Koreas at demilitarized zone (DMZ) to enter South Korea, becoming first North Korean leader to step into South Korean territory since 1953.
        45. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) and Electricite de France (EDF) of France signed an Industrial Way Forward Agreement for implementation of six nuclear power reactor units at Jaitapur (Maharashtra) with a total capacity of about 10000 MW. Evolutionary Pressurized Reactors (EPRs) are evolutionary reactors, whose design has evolved from “KONVOI’ and “N4’ reactors are operational in Germany and France respectively for over 20 years.
        46. Pakistan test fired Babur Weapon System-1 (B), enhanced version of indigenously-built Babur cruise missile with range of 700 KMs.
        47. Qatar approved a draft law on regulating ownership and use of properties by foreigners. It rules that non-Qataris might own and use properties under specific conditions, applicable to land space including buildings and residential units, detachment units in residential complexes.
          1. In Aug 2017, Qatar became first Arab Nation to offer permanent residency to foreigners.
        48. Qatar introduced national service for women for first time. Women aged over 18 will now be able to volunteer for national service under law, men will have to serve for a year instead of three months.
        49. Reliance chairman Mukesh Ambani, Human rights lawyer Indira Jaising and Architect Balkrishna Doshi are named by Fortune magazine as World’s Greatest Leaders of 2018, at 24th, 20th and 43rd places respectively.
        50. Report by global startup ecosystem map Startupblink -
          1. India is ranked 37th out of 125 countries in global startup ecosystem in 2017.
          2. Top 5 - United States (1st), United Kingdom (2nd), Canada (3rd), Israel (4th) and Germany (5th).
          3. In Asia - Singapore (10th), China (12th), South Korea (17th), Japan (20th).
          4. In Africa - South Africa (38th), Kenya (53rd), Egypt (54th), and Nigeria (57th).
        51. Saudi Arabia opened its first public movie theatre, after over 35 years of prohibition for religious reasons. A special screening of Marvel superhero film ‘Black Panther’ was held in Riyadh.
        52. Singapore and China signed MOU to promote collaboration between companies from both countries in third-party markets along China’s ambitious Belt and Road routes.
          1. Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)BRI is China's ambitious development strategy that aims to boost its connectivity and trade that will that will connect Asia, Africa, Middle East and Europe. It was proposed by Chinese President Xi Jinping in 2013. It comprises two components viz. the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road.
        53. Soft Drinks Industry Levy (also known as soft drinks sugar tax / sin tax / sugar tax) came into force in United Kingdom as part of government’s plan to combat obesity and sugar related disease. Drinks containing 5 grams of sugar per 100ml taxed are taxed at 18 pence per litre, and those with more than 5 grams per 100ml taxed at 24 pence per litre.
        54. South Korean pop group BTS won online reader’s poll for TIME ‘Person of the Year 2018’. South Korean President Moon Jae-in finished 2nd with 5% votes, followed by former US President Barack Obama with 3% votes.
        55. Southeastern Australian state New South Wales (NSW) announced USD 1.58 million partnership with India to enhance Indian startup ecosystem, technology, and advanced manufacturing sectors.
        56. Swaziland’s King Mswati III, Africa’s last absolute monarch officially changed name of his country to Kingdom of eSwatini. Its a Swazi language name that stands for ‘place of the Swazi’.
        57. Syria returned to France Légion d’honneur (France's Highest Civilian Honour) presented to its President Bashar al-Assad. Syria stated that it has been done as France is a PRO-USA Nation.
        58. Taipei World Trade Centre (TWTC) launched its office at New Delhi, to promote trade between India and Taiwan. It will serve as a single venue that combines consulting service on trade-related issues, trading partners, suppliers, and markets for international business.
        59. Turkey launched construction of its first-ever nuclear power plant in Mersin region, with support from Russia. Cost of power plant would be around 20 billion dollars and will meet 10 % power requirements of Turkey.
        60. UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) launched UN Road Safety Trust Fund to improve road safety worldwide. The fund has potential to galvanise global efforts to address road safety situation, building on progress made and experience gained over Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020. It will serve as catalyst for progress towards road safety targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
        61. US Department of Treasury included India in monitoring list of its major trading partners that merit close attention to their currency practices and macroeconomic policies. This list identifies countries that are trying to artificially manage value of their currency to gain trade advantage, by keeping exchange rate low to promote cheaper exports. India is 6th addition to this watch list after China, Japan, South Korea, Germany and Switzerland.
        62. USA Prez Donald Trump declared dead the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, as it protected immigrants brought to nation illegally as children.
        63. USA Supreme Court restricted deportation of immigrant felons (अपराधी) by ruling that US Immigration and Nationality Act requiring deportation of immigrants convicted of certain crimes of violence is unconstitutionally vague.
        64. USA Trade Representative (USTR) again placed India on ‘Priority Watch List’ in its annual Special 301 Report on state of intellectual property protection, along with 11 Other Nations.
          1. This Report identifies US trading partners that do not effectively protect IP rights or deny market access to its innovators that rely on protection of their IP rights.
          2. India remains one of world’s most challenging major economies with respect to protection and enforcement of intellectual property, as India’s enforcement action and policies are insufficient to curb problem.
          3. Report slammed Health Ministry of India for creating uncertainty in pharmaceutical market by demanding that pharmaceutical companies provide details of how they were using granted patents.
        65. USA and South Korea began their joint military training exercise named ‘Foal Eagle’.
        66. USA, France and Britain launched military operation against Syria, in response to Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s chemical attack that killed over 60 people last week.
        67. United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Malaysia concluded joint military exercise Desert Tiger 5, in Dubai (UAE).
        68. United Arab Emirates (UAE) approved law on Equal Wages and Salaries for men and women, to provide women with equal opportunities as partners in UAE’s development.
        69. United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) designated 14 sites as Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), located in China, Egypt, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Portugal, Spain and Sri Lanka. With this, there are now 50 Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems in 20 countries.
          1. 14 New GIAHS-
            1. Siwa Oasis - Egypt
            2. Chinampa Agriculture in World Natural and Cultural Heritage Zone - Mexico
            3. Zhagana Agriculture - Forest-Animal Husbandry Composite System - China
            4. Huzhou Mulberry-dyke & Fish Pond System - China
            5. Osaki Kodo's Traditional Water Management System for Sustainable Paddy Agriculture - Japan
            6. Nishi-Awa Steep Slope Land Agriculture System - Japan
            7. Traditional Hadong Tea Agrosystem in Hwagae-myeon - South Korea
            8. Agricultural System of Valle Salado de Añana - Spain
            9. Malaga Raisin Production System in La Axarquía - Spain
            10. Cascaded Tank-Village System - Sri Lanka
            11. Rice Terraces in Southern Mountainous and Hilly Areas - China
            12. Xiajin Yellow River Old Course Ancient Mulberry Grove System - China
            13. Traditional Wasabi Cultivation in Shizuoka - Japan
            14. Barroso Agro-sylvo-pastoral System - Portuga
          2. GIAHS in India -
            1. Saffron Heritage of Kashmir (J & K)
            2. Koraput Traditional Agriculture (Odisha)
            3. Kuttanad Below Sea Level Farming System (Kerala)
        70. United States Trade Representative (USTR) announced reviewing eligibility of India, Indonesia and Kazakhstan in Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) based on concerns about countries’ compliance with program.
          1. In Case of India, This review is based on concerns related to its compliance with GSP market access criterion and two petitions related to same criterion, filed by US dairy industry and US medical device industry.
          2. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) GSP is largest and oldest US trade preference programme introduced in 1976. It is designed to promote economic development by allowing duty-free entry for thousands of products from designated beneficiary countries. In India’s case, GSP enables duty-free entry of 3,500 product lines in US markets. Total US imports under GSP in 2017 was $21.2 billion, of which India was biggest beneficiary with $5.6 billion.
        71. World Bank Group approved USD 13 billion increase in paid-in capital, as part of a series of internal reforms. It consists USD 7.5 billion paid-in capital for International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and USD 5.5 billion for International Finance Commission (IFC). It also includes a USD 52.6 billion callable capital increase for IBRD.
        72. World Bank approved $55mn Loan to expand use of clean renewable energy in rural areas of Bangladesh where grid electricity cannot reach easily, under Second Rural Electrification and Renewable Energy Development (RERED II) Project.
        73. World’s first long-distance electric bus line began service in Paris (France), presented by Flixbus. It will link Paris to France’s northern city of Amiens, undertaking a 160 kilometres journey within 2 hours.

        1. 15th Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Defence Ministers Meeting held in Beijing (China). It was attended by India for the first time with Defence Minister Raksha Mantri attending on India's Behalf.
          1. India agreed to participate in Its first ever Joint Peace Mission with Pakistan, as a multi-nation counter-terror exercise in Russia to be held in September 2018 under aegis of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO). It aims to enhance counter-terror cooperation among 8 SCO member countries.
        2. 16th International Energy Forum Ministerial Meet Hosted by India in New Delhi.
        3. 2nd World Hindu Congress (WHC) will be held in Chicago (US) in September 2018, with theme Sumantrite Suvikrante - think collectively, achieve valiantly. It is organised by World Hindu Foundation to commemorate 125 years of Swami Vivekananda’s his toric Chicago address on September 11, 1893. Tulsi Gabbard, first Hindu lawmaker in US Congress is named as Chairperson of WHC 2018.
        4. 34 leading global technology firms including Facebook, Microsoft, HP, Cisco, and Oracle signed Cybersecurity Tech Accord in Geneva (Switzerland) to work together on cybersecurity issues. Four Principles of Cybersecurity Tech Accord are -
          1. Protect users and customers everywhere.
          2. Oppose cyberattacks on innocent citizens and enterprises.
          3. Empower users, customers and developers to strengthen cybersecurity.
          4. Partner with each other and like-minded groups to enhance cybersecurity.
        5. 4 day Asia-Pacific Regional Workshop of UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) held in New Delhi.
        6. 8th Regional 3R Forum in Asia and Pacific held in Indore (Madhya Pradesh), co-organized by Ministry of Housing and Affairs, Japan’s Environment Ministry, and United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD). Theme was Achieving Clean Water, Clean Land and Clean Air through 3R and Resource Efficiency– A 21st Century Vision for Asia-Pacific Communities.
          1. Regional 3R Forum in Asia and Pacific was launched in 2009 in Tokyo, Japan with objective of integrating 3Rs– reduce, reuse and recycle in policy, planning and development.
        7. Canada and European Union will host the world’s first 2-Day female foreign ministers’ meeting in September 2018 in Canada.
        8. European Union and UN co-chaired a 2 day international conference in Brussels (Belgium), aiming to pump financial aid for Syrians and garner political support for UN-led intra-Syrian talks.
        9. First African Land Forces Summit (ALFS) held in Abuja (Nigerian capital), hosted by US and Nigeria Armies. It brings together land force chiefs from across Africa, aimed at improving security and stability across continent.
        10. First international conference on Water, Environment and Climate Change: Knowledge Sharing and Partnership held in Kathmandu (Nepal).
        11. Global Logistics Summit (GLS-2018) held in New Delhi, organised by Department of Commerce along with Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) and World Bank Group.
        12. International Buddhist Conference held in Lumbini (Nepal), with theme Lumbini Nepal: The birthplace of Lord Buddha and the fountain of Buddhism and world peace.

        1. 21st Law Commission Recommendations (headed by former SC judge B.S. Chauhan) -
          1. Declare Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) a public body and bring BCCI and its all member cricket associations under Right to Information (RTI) law regime.
          2. Recommendations related to Elections -
            1. Holding simultaneous elections to Lok Sabha and state assemblies. simultaneous elections were held after Independence up to 1967. Dissolution of certain Assemblies in 1968 and 1969 followed by dissolution of Lok Sabha led to disruption of conduct of simultaneous elections.
            2. Issuance of Notification - Statutory limit of six months for issuance of notification of general elections.
            3. No-confidence motion - Parties which introduce no-confidence motion should simultaneously give a suggestion for an alternative government as no-confidence motion and premature dissolution of House is major roadblocks to simultaneous elections.
            4. Anti-defection law - The rigour of ‘Anti-defection Law’ must be removed as exception, to prevent stalemate (गतिरोध) in Lok Sabha/Assembly in case of Hung Parliament/Assembly.
            5. Mid-term elections - In case of mid-term elections, new Lok Sabha or Assembly will only serve remainder of term of previous Lok Sabha/Assembly and not a fresh term of five years.
            6. Prime minister/ CMs should be elected to lead Lok Sabha/Assembly, by full house like electing speaker of Lok Sabha. This will provide stability to government and in turn to Lok Sabha and state legislative assembly.
            7. Centre should get Constitutional amendments, if agreed upon, to be ratified by all the States so as to avoid any challenge to them.
        2. 2nd India Mobile Congress (IMC-2018) will be held in New Delhi in October 25-27, 2018 with theme NEW DIGITAL HORIZONS Connect, Create, innovate. It will be organised by Department of Telecommunications (DoT) and Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI).
        3. 51 day long 8th Theatre Olympics Concluded in Mumbai. This edition of Theatre Olympics brought together around 25,000 artists under theme “Flag of Friendship”. It witnessed 450 shows from more than 30 countries performed across 17 cities.
        4. Ib Setu has been launched by Odisha Govt. It is built over Ib river in Sambalpur district as 2nd larges river Bridge in State with 2.5-km length. It establishes direct connectivity between Sambalpur and Brajarajnagar.
          1. Dhola–Sadiya Bridge, also referred as Bhupen Hazarika Setu is a beam bridge and is longest River bridge in India (On Lohit River). It connects northeast states of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.
          2. New Ganga Bridge Project under construction in Bihar, will become longest bridge in India upon its completion in December 2020, with length of 9.8 kilometres.
        5. A 25 MW power plant worth Rs 502 crore will be set up in Bandhwari village of Gurugram (Haryana) to produce electricity from waste under Integrated Solid Waste Management Scheme.
        6. A Multi Modal Logistics Park at Balli Station near Madgaon in Goa has been inaugurated, as per MoU entered between Konkan Railway & Container Corporation of India Ltd (CONCOR). Spread over 81,300 square meters, It can handle both domestic and exim container traffic.
        7. According to a report from wireless coverage mapping company OpenSignal, Patna (Bihar) topped in 4G connectivity among 20 of India’s largest cities.
        8. An MOU is signed between Indian Culinary Institute (ICI) and Indira Gandhi National Tribal University (IGNTU) Amarkantak (Madhya Pradesh), to introduce collaborative degree programmes including research in culinary arts. It aims to create a mechanism to promote Indian Cuisine and meet requirement of specialists in Indian Cuisine. ICI's New campus has been opened in Noida (UP).
        9. Andhra Pradesh Govt. inaugurated Andhra Pradesh Cyber Security Operations Center (APCSOC) in Amaravati, to fight cyber security threats and offer real time intelligence sharing and threat analysis to all state government departments.
        10. Andhra Pradesh government Initiated its Bhu Seva project aimed at offering integrated services related with land. Each land parcel will be given an 11 Digit Bhudhar Number, to help in easy identification of details of land parcel. Ch Vijayamohan is Mission Director of Bhu Seva Mission.
        11. Apr 30 - International Jazz Day, declared by UNESCO In 2011. Saint Petersburg (Russia) is Global Host City for International Jazz Day 2018.
        12. Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) has been removed completely from Meghalaya. AFSPA empowers security forces to conduct operations and arrest anyone anywhere without prior notice.
        13. As per a recent AAI survey, Mangalore International Airport is adjudged as cleanest in India.
        14. Assam government’s new cashless health scheme, 'Atal Amrit Abhiyan' has been launched. It offers free medical care of up to Rs 2 lakh to every individual in state. It will cover 92 % of state's population with annual income below Rs 5 lakh, with INR 400 crores allocated in FY 2018-19.
        15. Bengaluru Smart City is testing an intelligent traffic management solution in collaboration with Electronics City Township Authority (ELCITA) to improve traffic management in city. It aims to provide traffic information that is currently unavailable and help improve management of commuter traffic.
        16. Bengaluru is named highest paying city in India, with average annual cost to company (CTC) standing at INR 11 lakh, according to Randstad Insights. Pune is 2nd at around 10 lakh, followed by Delhi NCR and Mumbai with average annual CTC of INR 10 lakh and 9 lakh respectively.
          1. Bangalore also emerged as most preferred city for office expansion, according to real estate consulting firm CBRE South Asia.
        17. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) granted First Licence to Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Ltd for Liquid Chlorine on all India basis as per Indian Standard (IS) 646:1986. Licence is operative from April 2018, for 1 year. Liquid Chlorine is stored in metal containers and is used as gas. It is used in paper, pulp, water sterilization, textile bleaching and manufacture of chemicals.
        18. Cabinet Approvals (Apr 11, 2018) -
          1. General Approvals -
            1. Increasing pay and allowances of Lieutenant Governors of Union Territories, from INR 80000 per month to 2.25 Lac Per Month.
          2. MOUs -
            1. With United Kingdom and Northern Ireland on return of Illegal Migrants.
          3. CCEA Approvals -
            1. Delegated powers to Finance and Petroleum Ministers to award oil and gas exploration blocks to successful bidders under Hydrocarbon Exploration Licensing Policy (HELP). Under HELP, exploration blocks awarded twice in a year and currently awarding of blocks requires CCEA’s approval.
            2. Relaxed rules for Coal India Ltd (CIL) for extraction of Coal Bed Methane (CBM) lying below coal seams in its blocks in bid to quickly boost production. Till now, CIL had to apply to oil ministry for a licence to extract coal-bed methane (CBM) from its coal blocks.
        19. Cabinet Approvals (Apr 25, 2018) -
          1. MOUs -
            1. With Sao Tome and Principe for Cooperation in Traditional Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy, Medicinal Plants.
            2. With World Health Organisation (WHO) for Cooperation in Public Health.
            3. With BRICS countries on cooperation in regulation of medical products for human use amongst medicine regulatory agencies.
            4. Renewal Long Term Agreements (LTAs) for supply of iron ore (lumps and fines) of grade +64% Fe content to Japanese Steel Mills (JSMs) and POSCO, South Korea for 5 five years (till 31.3.2023) through MMTC Limited.
            5. Declaration of Extension in Scheduled Areas in Rajasthan under 5th Schedule of Constitution of India.
          2. CCEA Approvals-
            1. Approved increase in Minimum Support Price (MSP) for Raw Jute for 2018-19 season, at INR 3700 per quintal (compared to 3500 in 2017-18 season).
            2. Approved Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National Bamboo Mission (NBM) under National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) during remaining period of Fourteenth Finance Commission (2018-19 & 2019-20). Expenditure is estimated at INR 1290 crores.
        20. Cabinet Approvals on Apr 04, 2018
          1. MOUs -
            1. With Afghanistan for cooperation in field of food safety and related areas.
            2. With Iran on establishment of an expert group on trade remedy measures.
            3. With Canada to foster cross-border partnerships focused on research excellence and industry-academic collaboration.
            4. With UAE for Techincal Co-operation in Railway Sector.
          2. CCEA (Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs) -
            1. Approved closure of Burn Standard Company Ltd (BSCL) - a Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE) under Ministry of Railways. It has been decided after continued poor physical and financial performance of company for over 10 years.
              1. Government will provide one-time grant of INR 417.10 crores for clearing liabilities of company. 508 employees of BSCL will benefit from Voluntary Retirement Scheme (VRS). BSCL was incorporated in 1976 following nationalization and amalgamation of Burn and Company and Indian Standard Wagon Company Limited in 1987 under Department of Heavy Industries (DHI). It and was declared sick in the year 1995.
            2. Approved Revised Cost Estimates (RCE) of scheme of Updation of National Register of Citizens (NRC) 1951 in Assam at a cost of Rs. 1220 crores upto 31-12-2018. Scheme of NRC, 1951 is specific to state of Assam covering about 3.29 crore applicants.
          3. Other Approvals -
            1. Approved rightsizing Competition Commission of India (CCI) from One Chairperson and Six Members (totalling seven) to One Chairperson and Three Members (totalling four), by not filling the existing vacancies of two Members and one more additional vacancy, expected in September 2018. It is being done inn line with Government's objective of Minimum Government - Maximum Governance.
        21. Central Government started a Pilot Scheme for Procurement of Aggregate Power of 2500 MW on competitive basis for 3 years from generators with commissioned projects but without Power Purchase Agreement. It will revive power demand, which has affected generators who do not have Power Purchase Agreements. Maximum allotment to a single entity has been capped at 600 MW.
        22. Central Govt's Saubhagya, Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana Yojana launched in North Eastern State of Nagaland, aimed at electrifying over 90000 households across state by March 31, 2019.
        23. Chennai based Geographical Indication Registry has awarded Geographical Indication (GI) Tag to two more craft forms from Telangana - Adilabad dokra and Warangal Dhurries.
          1. Adilabad Dokra is an ancient bell metal craft and Warangal Dhurries is a popular traditional cotton rug.Adilabad DokraIt is form of ancient bell metal craft practiced by Woj community native to Adilabad district.
          2. Warangal Dhurries is a popular traditional cotton rug in which weavers create beautiful patterns and dye them using vegetable colours, which are washed in flowing water after printing process. Currently, there are more than 2000 weaving community members present in Kothawada, Warangal in spinning Dhurrie.
        24. Chhattisgarh Government will start distributing free smartphones to over 50 lakh people across state under Sanchar Kranti Yojana (SKY), In a bid to reduce the digital divide. This will give phone connectivity to 13900 villages of Chhattisgarh.
        25. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research -National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL) and Department of Telecommunications (DoT) under Ministry of Communications signed an MOU on technical knowledge sharing for establishing a nationwide Time Stamping & Time Synchronization network and traceability of Time signal to UTC NPL Time.
          1. Nationwide, Time Stamping & Time Synchronization network consisting of 22 numbers of Time Synchronization Centers (TSC’s) will be set up by DoT with technical assistance from CSIR-NPL. This network will provide synchronizing pulse in Indian Standard Time(IST) to all Telecom & Internet Service providers in all the 22 LSA (Licensed Service Areas) in the country.
          2. Purpose of synchronizing the telecom network with IST time stamp is to enable security agencies to overcome difficulty in analyzing cyber events in this era of greatly increasing network speed with advancement of telecom technology. It will also improve telecom network efficiency by reducing packet loss due to reduced slips in better synchronized digital network.
        26. Delhi government will set up Rogi Kalyan Samitis in each Assembly constituency and Jan Swasthaya Samitis in state-run dispensaries, poly clinics and mohalla clinics, to provide support to health institutions. Each such entity will receive INR 3 lakh as grand-in aid every year.
        27. Delhi-NCR region began supplying ultra-clean Bharat Stage VI grade fuel (both petrol and diesel), to combat the rising levels of air pollution. Delhi became first city in country to switch from BS-IV grade fuels to BS-VI.
        28. Department of Posts launched DIGITAL ADVANCEMENT OF RURAL POST OFFICE FOR A NEW INDIA (DARPAN) Project, aiming to connect all 1.29 lakh Rural Branch Post Offices, to enable them to do online Postal and Financial Transactions. Project cost is INR 1300 crores.
        29. Diu Smart City become first city in India to run 100% on renewable energy during daytime setting a new benchmark for other cities to become clean and green. Diu had been importing 73% of its power from Gujarat until last year.
        30. Environment Ministry notified Plastic Waste Management (Amendment) Rules 2018, validating phasing out of Multilayered Plastic (MLP). MLP is non-recyclable, non-energy recoverable and has no alternate use. Other recommendations -
          1. Central registration system for registration of producer, importer or brand owner is to be created by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
          2. Producers with presence in over 2 states need to apply for national registry CPCB, while small producers require a state-level registration with State Pollution Control Board.
          3. Rule 15 has been removed, that stated explicit pricing of carry bags.
        31. Environment ministry has banned plastics in all protected areas throughout India, declaring them plastic free zones.
        32. FMCG major ITC tied up with NITI Aayog to train 2 lakh farmers to increase their income and raise productivity of major crops in 25 aspirational districts across 7 states by 2022. These districts are from Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
        33. Finance Ministry approved to provide Assistance for completion of 8 Irrigation projects and 83 Surface Minor Irrigation (SMI) projects in Vidarbha, Marathwada and drought prone areas of Maharashtra, with Estimated cost INR 13651 Crores. These projects are expected to be completed by 2022-23.
        34. Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) launched Project Dhoop to address rising incidence of Vitamin D deficiencies (VDD). It aims to encourage schools to shift their morning assembly to around noon-time, to ensure maximum absorption of Vitamin D in students through natural sunlight.
        35. Former footballer Bhaichung Bhutia launched his political party named “Hamro Sikkim”.
        36. General Conferences (Apr 11-20, 2018) -
          1. India's Largest Defence Expedition DefExpo-18 Held in Thiruvidanthai, Chennai (Tamilnadu). Third India-Russia Military Industrial Conference was also held alongwith. Theme of expo was India: The Emerging Defence Manufacturing Hub. During DEFEXPO 18 -
            1. Boeing India, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) and Mahindra Defence Systems entered into agreement to manufacture fighter aircraft F/A-18 Super Hornet in India.
            2. Mahindra Defence Systems also signed agreement with ShinMaywa Industries of Japan to manufacture amphibious aircraft ShinMaywa US-2 in India. It is only ‘in-service’ open sea-capable amphibian aircraft with advanced equipment suitable for rough sea operations.
          2. India International Institute of Democracy and Election Management (IIIDEM) organized 2-day Consultative Workshop for Delegation from the Central Election Commission (CEC) of Kazakhstan in New Delhi.
          3. India-Wiesbaden Conference 2018 held in New Delhi with theme Securing Global Supply Chains through Government-Industry Partnerships towards Effective Implementation of UNSC Resolution 1540.
          4. First regional conference of eastern states on Water Resources is held in Kolkata (West Bengal), to address outstanding water resources issues.
          5. First meeting of National Council on India’s Nutrition Challenges under POSHAN (Prime Minister’s Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nutrition) Abhiyaan held in New Delhi. It aims to ensure holistic development and adequate nutrition for pregnant women, mothers and children.
          6. 7th Home Expo India 2018, organised by Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts (EPCH) at India Expo Centre in Greater Noida (UP).
          7. Biannual Indian army commanders’ conference 2018 held in New Delhi.
          8. 2-day Regional Conference on “Urban Development: Technological Solutions and Governance Challenges” held in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.
        37. General Conferences (Apr 21 - 30, 2018) -
          1. Election Commission a Training and Certification Programme for State Level Master Trainers (SLMTs) at New Delhi. Certification course for Electoral Registration Officers (EROs) and Assistant Electoral Registration Officers (AEROs) was also conducted.
          2. Minister of Commerce & Industry and Civil Aviation, Suresh Prabhu chaired first meeting of think tank on Framework for National Policy on E-commerce held in New Delhi.
          3. National Kharif Conference 2018 held in New Delhi.
          4. 23rd meeting of Western Zonal Council held at Gandhinagar (Gujarat).
          5. First International SME Convention organised by Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in New Delhi.
          6. 29th Road Safety Week held at Vigyan Bhawan in New Delhi. Book named "Have a Safe Journey" was also released.
          7. 3rd Annual 5G India Congress 2018 held in New Delhi.
          8. 3rd meeting of Island Development Agency (IDA) held in Delhi.
          9. Secure India Conclave, organised by Global Counter Terrorism Council held in New Delhi.
          10. National Disaster Response Authority (NDMA) conducted its first ever mock exercise at Patna (Bihar), aimed at enhancing preparedness of Airport Emergency Handlers (AEHs) to respond to CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear) emergencies at airports.
          11. A Cancer Screening Mela was organized in Mizoram, by state's Health Department with Public Foundation of India and National Health Mission under initiative of Swasth Purv.
          12. Odisha Govt. inaugurated ‘Odisha Skills 2018’, state-level chapter of India Skill competition organised by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) in Cuttack (Odisha).
          13. Kerala hosted India Skills Kerala 2018 in Kochi, as part of World Skills India 2018, to help youngsters to show their vocational skills. It also helped training students for World Skills Competition Kazan 2019 (Russia).
        38. General Conferences (April 1-10, 2018) -
          1. Second lead-up Conference to 3rd Annual Meeting of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) held in Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh). Abut AIIB -
            1. Headquarters - Beijing (China).
            2. 64 Members and Jin Liqun is current (President).
          2. First meeting of the newly constituted ‘NITI Forum for North East held in Agartala (Tripura) today.
          3.  9th US-Japan-India held trilateral meeting in New Delhi.
          4. 2 Assam Spring Festival held at Manas National Park, organised by Indian Weavers’ Association and Swankar Mithinga Onsai Afat, an association of reformed poachers in Manas who are engaged in wildlife conservation.
          5. Uttarakhand’s second Mega Food Park- Himalayan Mega Food Park Private Ltd inaugurated at Mahuakhera Ganj in Kashipur in Udham Singh Nagar district. State's first Mega Food Park is operational at Haridwar.
          6. National Convention of Swachhagrahis held at Motihari (Bihar) with theme Satyagraha se Swachhagrah, organized as part of centenary celebrations of Champaran Satyagraha.
          7. 34th annual session of FICCI Ladies Organisation (FLO) held in New Delhi.
        39. Goa government will launch its own app-based taxi service to few key tourist destinations of state. Taxi operators would be required to follow online queuing system, based on which a ride will be confirmed or assigned to them. It is expected to solve state’s problematic tourist taxi issue that has been plaguing its tourism sector for several years.
        40. Google Arts & Culture in partnership with Ministry of Tourism has unveiled 360-degree virtual reality (VR) video for global ‘Incredible India’ tourism campaign. As part of it, Google Arts & Culture will provide immersive 360-degree view of India’s heritage, festivity and spirituality.
        41. Government banned imports of hormone oxytocin to stop its misuse in livestock industry, where it causes hormonal imbalances and shortens the lives of milch animals. Government will rely on domestic production to satisfy requirements of hormone.
        42. Government launched GOBARdhan Yojna nationally from National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) in Karnal district of Haryana. GOBAR is acronym for Galvanising Organic Bio Agro Resources. This scheme focuses on managing and converting cattle dung and solid waste from farms and fields to useful compost, biogas and bio-CNG. It will also help in keeping villages clean and generate energy while increasing income of farmers and cattle herders.
          1. Central and state governments will provide funds in the ratio of 60:40, depending upon number of households in village.
          2. It will be beneficial as India is home to highest cattle population in world (around 30 crores) and produces around 3 million tonnes of dung. It will encourage farmers to consider dung and other waste not just as waste but as source of income.
        43. Government preponed national development target date for completion of PMGSY-I (Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana) has been preponed from 2022 to 2019. Since its inception in 2000, PMGSY provided connectivity to 152124 habitations (from 178184 eligible habitations). Target is to Provide connectivity to 166012 habitations by March 2019.
          1. Construction of PMGSY roads reached record high of 134 kms per day in 2017-18 as against average of 73 kms during 2011 - 2014.
        44. Govt. launched a Mobile App (m-Awas) for allotment of Government accommodations in General Pool Residential Accommodation (GPRA) in Delhi under the control of Directorate of Estates.
        45. Gujarat Govt. approved setting up a 5,000 MW capacity solar park at Dholera Special Investment Region (SIR), as largest Solar Park in world. It would be set up in 11,000 hectares of land with an investment of INR 25000 crores.
        46. Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited (GNFC) started Neem Project in Amethi District of Uttar Pradesh. Since 2015, GNFC, through its Neem Project has collected over 45,000 tonnes of neem seeds by engaging 4.5 lakh rural women in 5 states - Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Rajasthan.
        47. Gujarat police unveiled Pocket Cop project, which will enable quicker verification of passport applicants, and search of accused persons. Under this, smartphones with data connectivity will be given to 4,900 police personnel.
        48. Hardeep Singh Puri (Minister of State (I/C) for Housing & Urban Affairs) launched Smart Imprest Cards & e- Measurement Book ( e-MB) on PFMS portal for CPWD. This will be first integrated web based module in Civil Ministries to monitor both financial progress along with physical progress captured as per schedule of various items of works.
        49. Haryana Government launched water ATM policy to provide clean drinking water at public places to people of state. Urban residents of state Haryana can now look forward to having a water ATM every 400 metres.
        50. Haryana Govt. approved Slum-In-Situ Rehabilitation Policy to provide housing facility to slum dwellers without making them relocate to other areas. Under this, total INR 1.67 lakh per dwelling unit will be provided to developer for construction of houses (1 Lakh by Central and 67000 by State Govt.).
        51. Himachal Pradesh Government will introduce free Heli-ambulance services in order to help patients in far flung and inaccessible areas . Free Heli-ambulance services will be operated by Heli-mission Switzerland with the assistance of Lady Willingdon Hospital (Kullu District).
          1. State Govt. inaugurated Kanda Pattan-Sarkaghat Water Supply Scheme in Mandi district. It will benefit more than 31,000 people of region. State govt. also decreased age criteria for getting old age pension to 70 years from 80 years.
        52. Himachal Pradesh Govt. launched Mother’s Absolute Affection (MAA) programme with an aim to promote breastfeeding, strengthening inter-personal communication through ASHA workers, skilled support for breastfeeding at delivery points.
        53. Human Resource Development Ministry launched 2nd edition of Unnat Bharat Abhiyan in New Delhi. Under this, students from 750 higher educational institutions from across country will adopt nearby villages and visit them to get acquainted with regular lifestyle of village people and problems faced by them. Main objective is to enable higher education institutions to work with people of rural India in identifying development challenges and evolving appropriate solutions for accelerating sustainable development in rural areas.
        54. Human Resource Development Ministry released NIRF India Rankings 2018 of higher educational institutions -
          1. Top 10 (Overall) -
            1. Indian Institute of Science Bengaluru
            2. Indian Institute of Technology Madras
            3. Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
            4. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
            5. Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
            6. Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
            7. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
            8. Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
            9. Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
            10. Anna University, Chennai
          2. Top 5 Universities -
            1. Indian Institute of Science Bangalore
            2. Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi
            3. Banaras Hindu University Varanasi
            4. Anna University Chennai
            5. University of Hyderabad
          3. Top 5 Medical Institutes -
            1. All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi
            2. Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
            3. Christian Medical College, Vellore
            4. Kasturba Medical College, Manipal
            5. King George`s Medical University, Lucknow
          4. Top 5 Colleges -
            1. Miranda House, Delhi University
            2. St, Stephens, Delhi University
            3. Bishop Heber College, Tiruchirappalli
            4. Hindu College, Delhi
            5. Presidency College, Chennai
          5. Top 5 Engineering Institutes -
            1. IIT Madras
            2. IIT Bombay
            3. IIT Delhi
            4. IIT Kharagpur
            5. IIT Kanpur
          6. Top 5 Management Institutes -
            1. Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Ahmedabad
            2. Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Bangalore
            3. Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Calcutta
            4. Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Lucknow
            5. Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode
        55. Indian Government will launch a national disaster database on UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR’s) insistence to implement its commitment to Sendai Framework. State authorities will mandatorily report all disaster-related losses on real time basis.
        56. Indian Railways inducted three 09-3x Dynamic Tamping Express machines for improved mechanised Track Maintenance, manufactured in India under Make in Inida initiative with imported components. This technology is available in five countries including India.
          1. Railways plans to induct 42 more such machines in its maintenance fleet over next 3 years.
          2. These Machines can perform several track maintenance tasks which are currently performed manually / through several machines.
          3. Railways has planned complete mechanisation of inspection, monitoring, relaying and maintenance of track by 2024. Induction of such new machines will further help to improve safety, reliability and economy in maintenance of tracks over Indian Railways.
        57. Kerala CM Pinarayi Vijayan launched Pravasi pension scheme, offering pension of INR 2000 a month to state's Non Resident Citizens of 0ver 60 years age. To avail this scheme, person has to pay Rs 100 per month for 5 years.
        58. Kerala Government will start a ‘community radio’ to update farmers about latest developments, as first such community radio in India. It will start broadcast from Kuttanad in Alappuzha district, known as rice bowl of Kerala.
        59. Kerala's startup ecosystem congregation held at Kovalam, with name Huddle Kerala. It is organised by Kerala Startup Mission (KSUM) along with Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI).
        60. Linguist Panchanan Mohanty from University of Hyderabad discovered 2 endangered languages Walmiki and Malhar predominantly spoken in remote regions of Odisha.
          1. Walmiki - Spoken in district of Koraput of Odisha and on bordering districts of Andhra Pradesh.
          2. Malhar - Spoken in a remote and isolated hamlet about 165 km away from Bhubaneswar. It is spoken by community consisting of about 75 speakers including children.
        61. Madras High Court became first court in south India and overall eighth in the country to introduce e-court fee payment facility. It will enable litigants who file cases in High Court to pay judicial stamp duty to government through e-stamps.
        62. Maharashtra Govt. launched QUEST (Quality Evaluation for Sustainable Transformation), a centre to evaluate and quantify special development budget allocations and their impact on tribal development, to bring greater accountability in management of funds allocated for tribal welfare.
        63. Maharashtra government announced that cancer patients would be provided with free chemotherapy treatment at district hospitals, starting June 2018. It aims to ease travelling and lodging problems of cancer patients who come to Mumbai's Tata Memorial Hospital in Parel, which is one of the country's premier cancer treatment facilities.
        64. Mahindra Electric and cab service Meru announced joint electric vehicle (EV) pilot project in Hyderabad.
        65. Manipur's Shirui Lily Festival 2018 has been concluded at Ukhrul district, to spread awareness about conservation of endangered Shirui Lily.
        66. Meghalaya government launched ‘Mission Lakadong’ to achieve a five-fold increase in production of Lakadong turmeric, an organic variety of turmeric grown in Meghalaya, to at least 50,000 metric tonne per year in 5 years. Jaintia Hills District is home to Lakadong turmeric.
        67. Minister for Railways and Coal Piyush Goyal launched UTTAM App for Coal Quality Monitoring. UTTAM stands for – Unlocking Transparency by Third Party Assessment of Mined Coal ( It aims to provide an App for all citizens and coal consumers to monitor Third Party Sampling of coal across CIL subsidiaries. It provides a platform for monitoring of sampling and coal dispatches and aims to make citizens a stakeholder in coal ecosystem.
        68. Minister of Information & Broadcasting Smriti Zubin Irani Launched a scholarship of INR 25000 in commemoration of Deen Dayal Upadhyay, for people who did exemplary work in development of journalism.
        69. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare launched seed import-export portal to facilitate export-import of seeds and planting material, for making trade process easy. Import export of seeds and planting material is controlled under Import Export Policy 2002-2007. Now, Organisations importing-exporting seeds will not be required to submit their applications in 20 copies.
        70. Ministry of Commerce and Industry launched digital initiatives of Export Inspection Council (EIC) for ease of export to boost to India’s potential for agricultural and food export.
          1. EIC developed three portals to reduce transaction time and cost in transparent manner.
          2. Lab-one assessment portal - It will provide unified approach to all stakeholders like accreditation bodies, regulators and laboratories by bringing them together on common platform.
          3. Export Alert Monitoring portal - It will monitor non-compliances raised by importing countries. It will enable monitoring of alerts and action taken by multiple organizations involved in initial certification in food safety and bio-security.
        71. Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) released draft of National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) proposing multiple strategies to reduce air pollution. NCAP aims to meet prescribed annual average ambient air quality standards at all locations in a stipulated time frame. However it does not mention any specific target and time frame.
        72. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare will roll out ‘Integrated initiative for prevention & control of viral hepatitis’ under National Health Mission (NHM) for prevention and control of viral hepatitis. It will have budgetary support of over 517 crores for three years. India aims to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030.
        73. Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises has extended Phase-1 of FAME India (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles) Scheme to provide financial support to electric and hybrid vehicles by another six months till 30 September 2018 or till launch of phase-II.
          1. FAME-India scheme was launched in 2015 under National Electric Mobility Mission (NEMM). It aims at promoting eco-friendly vehicles in the country.
        74. Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) launched web-based application e-FRRO (e-Foreigners Regional Registration Office) to allow foreign tourists and travellers to avail of paperless and cashless visa-related services.
        75. Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) relaxed six-decade-old protected area permit (PAP) regime to allow foreign tourists to access border areas of Nagaland, Mizoram and Manipur for 5 years effect from April 1, 2018. However, citizens from Pakistan, China and Afghanistan will still be banned from all PAP areas.
        76. Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs inaugurated Central Project Monitoring Unit for e-Vidhan project of Government at Parliament House Annexe in New Delhi. e-Vidhan project aims to digitize functioning of State Legislatures to make them paperless.
        77. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas launched Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana in New Delhi and Telangana. Under it, gas connections will be distributed to identified beneficiary women in Delhi. PMUY was launched by PM Narendra Modi in May 2016 with tagline of Swachh Indhan, Behtar Jeevan.
        78. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) published new draft rules to make mandatory for automobile manufacturers to provide high security registration plates (HSRP) to all new vehicles from January 1, 2019. HSRP to be fitted in all classes of motor vehicles will have tamper-proof plates with host of in-built security features and will offer increased protection against theft.
        79. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways proposed One Nation One Tax policy for seamless movement of commercial vehicles across country. The Group of Ministers is headed by Rajasthan transport minister Yoonus Khan.
          1. It will put check on people registering their vehicles in low tax states and running them in other states. It will also bring necessary relief to genuine cases requiring transfer of vehicles.
          2. Uniform tax should be based on invoice price of vehicles in three slabs. 8% tax on vehicles below 10 lakhs, 10% for vehicles costing between 10 -20 lakh, and 12% for vehicles above 20 lakh. Diesel vehicles may have to pay 2% extra taxes, while electric vehicles will be given 2% discount.
        80. Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Culture and Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) launched Adopt a Heritage Project. Under it, tourist amenities will be developed at selected heritage sites. Engaged Entities will be called as Monument Mitra and adopt sites essentially under their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activity.
        81. Ministry of Tribal affairs approved establishment of first multipurpose “Van Dhan Vikas Kendra” in Bijapur District of Chhattisgarh for value addition of Forest Produce, as part of Government’s scheme of Mechanism for marketing of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) through Minimum Support price (MSP) and development of Value chain for MFP.
        82. NITI Aayog launched Atal New India Challenge under Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) with aim to bring-in innovations and technologies relevant to people. It will focus on efforts towards solving problems in core areas, to have direct impact on improving lives of citizens and generate employment.
        83. NITI Aayog will build National Data & Analytics Platform (NDAP) to host and analyse huge amount of data which shall be helpful for citizens to understand spend patterns of government, consumption trends and success of various government policies.
        84. National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) sigend pact with Macquarie for road projects under highway monetisation drive.
        85. National Institute of Wind Energy (NIWE) under Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) issued Expression of Interest (EoI) for first offshore wind energy project of India in Gulf of Khambat off the coast of Gujarat, with 1000 MW (1 GW) capacity. MNRE is plannning to install at least 5 GW of offshore wind capacity by 2022.
        86. National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) signed MoU with the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) to provide skill training to 500 youth and women at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu.
        87. PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and Indian Yoga Association (IYA) signed MoU to Promote wellness, spiritual and cultural tourism in Krishna Circuit under Swadesh Darshan Scheme. Under it, 12 destinations spread across five states have been proposed.
        88. PM Narendra Modi announced that April 28 will be remembered as a historic day as on this day, every single village of India was electrified, few days before deadline of May 10, 2018.
          1. Leisang, a village in central Manipur's Senapati district, was last one to receive electricity on April 29, 2018 under Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY).
          2. Out of 18,452 villages that were without electricity in 2015, 17,181 have been electrified. Others are either uninhabited or classified as grazing reserves.
          3. Still, 3.2 crore homes are still not electrified as government considers a village electrified, if it has basic electrical infrastructure; and 10 % of its places including schools, local administrative offices and health centres have power.
          4. PM Modi in his speech on August 15, 2015 promised electrification all un-electrified villages within 1000 days. For this, government launched Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY).
        89. PM Narendra Modi launched India's first 12,000 horsepower electric locomotive with transport capacity of 6000 tonnes from Madhepura locomotive factory of Bihar, made with help of French company Alstom.
          1. India Joins Russia, China, Germany and Sweden that have successfully run over 12000 horsepower capacity electric Locomotives.
          2. Alstom will deliver 800 high horsepower locomotives over 11 years to India. First five locomotives will be imported while remaining 795 will be manufactured in India.
        90. Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) will set up a Gas Trading Hub / Exchange (GTHE) by October 2018, to create an Indian gas benchmark that will spark an increase in consumption of cleaner-burning fuel. Main objective is to boost consumption of natural gas in India.
        91. Road Transport and Highways Minister Nitin Gadkari announced development of a new Expressway between Delhi and Mumbai, at a cost of 1 Lakh Crore Rupees. Minister also disclosed plans for a Chambal Expressway which would be connected to Delhi-Mumbai Expressway, and is likely to benefit states like Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
        92. SJVN Limited signed MoU with Ministry of Power, setting target of generating 9200 Million Units during 2018-19 under ‘Excellent’ category. SJVN looks to have Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) target of 900 crores and Turnover of 2175 crores.
        93. Search engine Google is most trusted Internet brand in India as per TRA Brand Trust Report 2018, With 1.2 trillion searches per year. Google is followed by Facebook, Amazon and eBay. Biggest falls was seen by Snapdeal(fell by 142 ranks) and best trust gainer is Netflix (up 506 ranks).
        94. Supreme Court asked Uttar Pradesh Sunni Waqf Board to show documents signed by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan to prove its ownership on Taj Mahal. SC Bench headed by Chief Justice Dipak Misra asked Waqf board counsel to authenticate that Shah Jahan executed a ‘Waqfnama’ in favour of Waqf board, a document through which a person conveys intention to donate a property to Waqf for charitable purpose.
          1. SC also raised a question for Waqf board that how Shah Jahan could sign a document when he was imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb after war of succession at Agra Fort in 1658 and Mughal emperor died in fort itself in 1666. SC also told council that Taj Mahal and other heritage structures were built by Mughals and were taken over by Britishers after end of Mughal rule.
          2. SC ruled this when he Waqf board counsel told court that Shah Jahan had himself declared Taj Mahal a Waqf property. Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) filled an appeal in SC against waqf board’s declaring Taj Mahal as its property.
        95. Surat railway station (Gujarat) will be third in India to be developed as a world-class facility under Railway’s station redevelopment programme, After Habibganj (Bhopal) and Gandhinagar (Gujarat), which will both be ready by 2019. It is being done Railway Ministry’s 1 lakh crore station redevelopment programme.
        96. Swedish-Swiss Firm ABB announced commissioning of India’s first industrial solar microgrid in Vadodara (Gujarat). Microgrid is a localized electricity source which can function autonomously as well as by connecting and being synced with traditional centralized electrical grid (macrogrid). Microgrids with integrated battery energy storage are setup to ensure continuity of work during power outages.
        97. Tamil Nadu Government launched bi-lingual (Tamil and English) Uzhavan (farmer) mobile application in a bid to use technology for benefit of farmers. It will allow farmers to access nine types of services, including crop insurance, farm subsidies, farm equipments and related infrastructure.
        98. Tamil Nadu government launched Amma Free Wi-Fi zones in 5 cities of Tamil Nadu, under which Wi-Fi zones will be set up in 50 spots. Users will be offered 20 minutes of free internet service per day. After that users will be charged Rs 10 per hour.
        99. Telangana Govt. announced 2 % reservation in state government jobs for sportspersons.
        100. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) proposed open architecture-based public Wi-Fi grid to bring down the cost of internet by 90%, as Broadband proliferation across country is very important pillar of Digital India. TRAI suggested that any entity should easily be able to set up a public Wi-Fi access point.
        101. Tripura Government approved INR 50 crores to set up an Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) at Bodhjungnagar, 15 km away from Capital Agartala.
        102. Tripura became first North East state to launch state component of Pradhanmantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna (PMKVY) in Agartala, aiming to train over 1.16 lakh youths by 2020.
        103. UIDAI unveiled beta version of ‘Virtual ID’, which will soon be accepted by service providers in place of Aadhaar numbers. An Aadhaar holder can generate VID from UIDAI’s website is a random 16-digit number mapped to a person’s Aadhaar number and biometrics. VID would give any authorised agency like a mobile company, limited details for verification purpose.
          1. It will do away with sneed of disclosing 12-digit Aadhaar number for authentication or verification purposes.
        104. Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) brought in secured digitally-signed QR Code on e-Aadhaar. It will contain photograph of Aadhaar holder in addition to demographic details.
          1. QR code is form of barcode label which contains machine-readable information while e-Aadhaar is electronic version of Aadhaar that can be downloaded from official UIDAI website.
        105. Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) introduced updated ‘QR code’ for offline Aadhaar verification to strengthen its privacy measures during usage, aimed at adding an extra layer of privacy to Aadhaar after recently introducing concept of virtual identification.
        106. Uttar Pradesh Government has launched Ganga Hariteema Yojana (also known as Ganga Greenery scheme) in 27 districts of the state located on bank of river Ganga. It aims at enhancing green cover in catchment areas of river Ganga and control land erosion. Under it, tree plantation will be carried out in 1 Km areas from banks of river.
        107. Uttar Pradesh Government ordered all government hospitals and orphanages to establish Shishu Swagat Kendra - Palna, and put up cradles in front of their buildings so that any person can leave their unwanted child without disclosing their identity. Objective is to tackle problem of abandoning infants at roadside or other places which may pose a risk of life for baby.
        108. Uttar Pradesh Govt. approved construction of an integrated sugar complex in Pilibhit and setting up a Tiger Conservation Foundation in Dudhwa.
        109. Uttarakhand Govt. Trivendra Singh Rawat launched campaign to improve standard of education in government schools of Uttarakhand. Under it, 1 model school will be opened in Almora (Kumaon) and another in Garhwal region to offer quality education to poor and underprivileged children.
        110. Uttarakhand Govt. launched a campaign called “Devbhoomi dialogue”, calling upon youth to look for self-employment opportunities in their chosen fields.
        111. Vice President and Rajya Sabha Chairperson M Venkaiah Naidu rejected impeachment notice submitted by Opposition parties against Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra, stating that motion lacked substantial merit and was based on mere suspicion.
        112. Website of Pashu Chikitsak Mahasangh, topmost body for state veterinary associations has been launched at URL‘. It is aimed to act as a Knowledge Base for Veterinarians and a Forum.
        113. West Bengal government will apply for coveted Ramsar Site recognition under Ramsar Convention for Sunderban Reserve Forest. Sundarbans Reserve Forest will be largest protected wetland in the country. There are currently 26 sites in India recognised as Ramsar wetland sites of international importance.
        114. World Malaria Day (WMD) is being observed every year on 25 April across the world to recognise the global efforts to control preventable vector borne disease malaria. The theme of 2018 WMD is “Ready to beat malaria“

        1. Airports Authority of India (AAI) appointed Taniya Sanyal as country's first woman firefighter.
        2. British actress Millie Bobby Brown became youngest person in list of world’s 100 most influential people by TIME. 4 Indians featured on this list - Virat Kohli, Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella, Actor Deepika Padukone and Ola co-founder Bhavish Aggarwal.
        3. Karan Johar became first Bollywood filmmaker to get a place at Madame Tussauds Museum London (UK).
        4. Obituaries (April 2018) -
          1. Efrain Rios Montt - Noted military dictator of Guatemala. He was accused of a mass genocide.
          2. Munin Barua - Noted Assamese film-maker.
          3. Ray Wilkins - Noted England Footballer.
          4. S. Nihal Singh - Noted journalist.
          5. Ram Kumar - Noted painter. Hwa was awarded Padma Bhushan in 2010.
          6. TVR Shenoy - Noted journalist and columnist passed. He was awarded Padma Bhushan in 2003.
          7. Rajinder Sachar - Former Delhi High Court Chief Justice.
          8. Bhimsain Khurana - Noted animation expert
          9. Nabi Tajima - The world’s oldest person (117 year old) from Japan. Another Japanese woman, Chiyo Miyako, is now world’s oldest person (117 Years).
          10. James Ajongo - South Sudan military chief who died during a visit to Egypt.
          11. Avicii - Noted Swedish dance music star.
        5. PM Narendra Modi released a commemorative postage stamp on former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Late Shri Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna.
        6. Persons Retired / Resigned (April 2018) -
          1. Morne Morkel - South African cricketer.
          2. Julio Cesar - Brazilia Footballer.
          3. Aditya Ghosh - Airline IndiGo CEO. Rahul Bhatia has been named Interim CEO.
        7. Pune Swimmer Sampanna Ramesh Shelar has set a world record to double cross Bangla Channel (Water stretch from Saint Martin’s Island Jetty to Teknaf in Bangladesh). He accomplished this by completing swim of 32.2 kilometers in 9 hours and 10 minutes.
        8. Sikkim Chief Minister Pawan Chamling (from Sikkim Democratic Front) became the longest-serving Chief Minister in India, surpassing Jyoti Basu, who served as West Bengal CM from 1977 to 2000. Chamling became Chief Minister in December 1994 and serves till Date.
        9. Three-time Oscar winning filmmaker Steven Spielberg became first director whose films have earned over $10 billion Globally.
        10. Visits From India (Apr 1 - 10, 2018) -
          1. Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman visited Russia to attend VII Moscow Conference on International Security.
          2. External Affairs Minister Susma swaraj Visited japan for 9th India-Japan Foreign Minister’s Strategic Dialogue.
          3. External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj visited Azerbaijan to participate in Mid-Term Ministerial Meeting of Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in Baku. On this occasion, India and Azerbaijan signed 2 MOUs for visa waiver for diplomatic, official and service passports holders and cooperation between diplomatic training institutes.
          4. Shipping, Road Transport & Highways Minister Nitin Gadkari Visited South Korea. India and SK signed mutual recognition of certificate of competency of seafarers to provide Indian seafarers employment on over 500 Korean ships.
          5. Indian President Ram Nath Kovind Visited 3 African Nations - Equatorial Guinea, Swaziland and Zambia. It is first-ever visit by any head of state of India to Equatorial Guinea and Swaziland.
            1. Equatorial Guinea -
              1. President Kovind was conferred with Condecoracion, highest honour accorded to a non-citizen by government of Equatorial Guinea. He was bestowed with medal of the Gran Colar de la Independencia by Equatorial Guinea government.
              2. 3 MOUs signed - AYUSH and traditional medicine, medicinal plants, An action plan for Information and Communication Technology.
            2. Swaziland -
              1. President Kovind inaugurated Information Technology Centre located in Royal Science and Technology Park (RSTP).
              2. India and Swaziland signed two agreements on health and visa waiver.
              3. President Kovind was conferred with Order of the Lion, highest civilian honour of Swaziland.
              4. President Kovind announced to donate $1 million to support Swaziland's national disaster mmanagement agency
              5. India will establish a Centre of Agricultural Excellence in Swaziland.
              6. India donated US $1 million to support Swaziland’s National Disaster Management Agency as well as food grains.
            3. Zambia
              1. India and Zambia signed four agreements - double taxation avoidance; on mutual visa waivers for officials and diplomats, judicial cooperation and on Entrepreneurship Development Institute that India will build in Zambia.
              2. India will provide USD 100000 towards construction of Mahatma Gandhi Convention Centre in Lusaka (capital of Zambia).
              3. India gifted medicines and medical equipment worth USD 3 million to Zambia.
        11. Visits From India (Apr 11 - 20, 2018) -
          1. Minister of state for social justice and empowerment Krishan Pal Gurjar Visited Southeast Asian nation Timor Leste. MoU was signed in field of public health to extend affordable healthcare to people of Timor Leste.
          2. P.P. Chaudhary, Minister of State for Corporate Affairs and Law & Justice Visited USA an Carribean Nations St. Vincent & Grenadines, Barbados.
          3. Subhash Chandra Garg , Secretary in Department of Economic Affairs Visited Washington D.C. (USA) for BRICS Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting. It was held in sidelines of IMF/World Bank Spring Meetings in Washington D.C. Urjit R. Patel, RBI Governor Visited IMF/World Bank Spring Meetings in Washington D.C on India's Behalf.
            1. During BRICS Finance Ministers Meet, India pressed BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) nations to set up an independent credit rating agency.
          4. PM Narendra Modi Visited Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany -
            1. UK Visit -
              1. PM attended Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in London.
                1. India and 3 other countries (Sri Lanka, Mauritius and Malta) participated creating in USD 5 million Commonwealth Small States Trade Finance Facility which will enable small states to obtain easier access to international trade finance to diversify their economies and achieve sustainable development goals. Standard Chartered Bank and Bank of Baroda, are facility managers for this fund. 31 Commonwealth nations classified as small states can avail this facility. Before it is available to all such nations, it will be rolled out on pilot basis in Bahamas, Botswana, Brunei, Dominica, Fiji, Mauritius, Namibia and Seychelles.
              2. UK formally joined International Solar Alliance, founded by India and France. It was announced at an event called Financing the Green Revolution.
              3. 10 MOUs Signed -
                1. UK-India Cyber Relationship framework aimed at having a free, open, peaceful and secure cyberspace
                2. MoU to enable United Kingdom to support India in sustainable management of water resources in Ganga river basin.
                3. MoU on agreement on Skill Development, vocational education and training.
                4. Agreement for regulation of safe nuclear energy use for peaceful purposes.
                5. MoU on skill development, vocational education and training to promote collaboration and capacity-building.
                6. MoU on cooperation in the animal husbandry, dairying and fisheries sectors.
                7. MoU on exchange of information for combating international criminality and tackling serious organised crime.
                8. addendum covering research in humanities and social sciences has been added to 2004 Newton-Bhabha MoU.
                9. MoU to enable development of evidence-based guidelines for integrating Ayurvedic principles and practices with modern medicine.
                10. MoU to strengthen institutional cooperation in sustainable urban development and enhance cooperation in Smart Cities Mission.
              4. Additionally, India's NASSCOM and TechUK launched new UK-India Tech Alliance, aimed at increasing collaboration on skills and new technologies, assisting policy development and encouraging innovation and lay groundwork for roadmap which will be jointly presented in June 2018.
            2. Sweden Visit -
              1. India and Sweden hosted India-Nordic Summit titled India-Nordic Summit: Shared Values, Mutual Prosperity.
                1. Nordic Nations are Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, including Greenland and Faroe Islands.
                2. Nordic countries are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and North Atlantic.
              2. An India-Sweden Joint Action Plan was decided with target areas -
                1. Innovation.
                2. Trade and investment.
                3. Smart Cities and Next Generation Transport.
                4. Smart, sustainable and renewable energy.
                5. Women’s skills development and empowerment - Encourage women empowerment by skilling employment and entrepreneurship opportunities for women through projects like“Kraftsamla”, undertaken by Swedish and Indian actors in Pune, Maharashtra.
                6. Defence
                7. Space and science
                8. Health and Life Sciences
              3. MOUs -
                1. With Sweden
                  1. Joint Declaration on India-Sweden Innovation Partnership for a Sustainable Future.
                2. With Denmark -
                  1. In field of Sustainable and Smart Urban Development.
                  2. In fields of Animal Husbandry and Dairying.
                  3. On Food Safety Cooperation between
                  4. Cooperation in Agricultural Research and Education between.
                3. With Iceland -
                  1. Establishment of the ICCR Chair for Hindi Language between Indian Council for Cultural Relations and University of Iceland.
                4. Agreements between India and Sweden Joint Declaration on India-Sweden Innovation Partnership for a Sustainable Future between Ministry of Science and Technology of India and the Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation.
            3. Germany -
              1. The Visit to Germany was a brief stop over, to discuss issues of common interest and enhance co-operation.
        12. Visits from India (Apr 21 - 30, 2018) -
          1. External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj Visited Mongolia. She co-chaired 6th round of India-Mongolia Joint Consultative Committee meeting.
          2. Indian Commerce Secretary Rita Teaotia Visited Teotia. During this Visit, India and Nepal agreed to review their bilateral trade treaty by July 2018, during a meeting of India-Nepal Inter-Government Committee (IGC) on Trade, Transit and Cooperation to Control Unauthorised Trade in Kathmandu.
          3. Indian PM Narendra Modi Visited China -
            1. India and China's first Informal Summit was held in Wuhan, to discuss measures for strengthening bilateral ties.
            2. PM Modi gifted to Xi Jinping (Chinese Premier), specially made prints of paintings by legendary Chinese artist Xu Beihong.
            3. India and China agreed to undertake joint India-China economic project in Afghanistan.
            4. PM Modi laid emphasis on importance of people-to-people (P2P) contact through STRENGTH. S-Spirituality; T-Tradition, Trade and Technology; R-Relationship; E-Entertainment (Art, Movies, etc.); N-Nature conservation; G-Games; T-Tourism and H-Health and Healing.
        13. Visits to India (Apr 1 - 10, 2018) -
          1. Nepal's Prime Minister K P Sharma Oli Visited India -
            1. India and Nepal decided to develop inland waterways for cargo movement within Protocol to Treaty of Transit, recognizing untapped potential of inland waterways to contribute towards overall economic development of the region.
            2. India agreed to build strategic railway link between Raxaul in Bihar and Kathmandu in Nepal to facilitate people-to-people (P2P) contact and bulk movement of goods.
            3. India agreed to promote and co-operate in Agricultural development in Nepal.
          2. Vice Foreign Minister of Vietnam, Dang Dinh Quy Visited India.
        14. Visits to India (Apr 11 - 20, 2018) -
          1. Aziz Rabbah, Minister of Energy, Mines and Sustainable Development of Morocco Visited India. On this occasion, India and Morocco signed MoU in field of Mining and Geology for a period of 5 years to promote mineral exploration.
        15. Visits to India (Apr 21 - 30, 2018)
          1. International Olympic Committee (IOC) president Thomas Bach Visited India, presented a memento to Indian shooter Abhinav Bindra and boxer Vijender Singh.

        1. 4 rare kingfisher species are spotted in Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary in Andhra Pradesh, identified as White-throated kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis), Pied kingfisher (Ceryle rudis), Black-capped kingfisher (Halcyon pileate) and Common kingfisher.
        2. All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi (AIIMS) has set up India’s first Virtual Bronchoscopy Navigation (VBN), an advanced facility for diagnosis and treatment of small tumour-like spots in lungs.
        3. As per a recent study, 26 % of nitrogen on Earth comes from weathering of planet’s bedrock, as against current belief that all of nitrogen on Earth available to plants comes from atmosphere. Ecosystems need nitrogen and other nutrients to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) pollution and there is limited amount of it available from plants and soils.
          1. Geology and carbon sequestration - Rock-derived nitrogen may fuel growth of forests and grasslands, and allow them to sequester more CO2 than previously thought.
          2. This discovery can improve climate change projections, which rely on understanding carbon cycle. Mapping nutrient profiles in rocks for their carbon uptake potential can help drive conservation efforts. For decades, scientists recognized that more nitrogen accumulates in soils and plants than can be explained by input from atmosphere alone, but they couldn’t find missing sources of Nitrogen.
        4. Australian scientist of Indian origin Veena Sahajwalla launched world’s first microfactory that can transform components from electronic waste items into valuable materials for re-use. It uses green manufacturing technologies to turn many types of consumer waste such as glass, plastic and timber into commercial materials and products. Transformed materials from micro-factory includes metal alloys and range of micromaterials.
        5. Bhabha Atomic Reseach Centre (BARC) developed Bhabha Kavach, a next-generation cheaper and lighter bulletproof jacket, named after Dr. Homi J. Bhabha, father of Indian nuclear programme.
          1. Bhabha Kavach is made of boron carbide and carbon nanotube polymer composite and weighs just 6.6 kg, reducing weight by 50%.
          2. It will cost Rs 60,000-70,000, compared to imported bulletproof jackets costing around Rs 1.5 lakh.
        6. Chinese Researchers developed a new 3D conic device that can greatly increase solar-thermal conversion efficiency, Named Artificial Transpiration and inspired by transpiration process of trees. It is fixed with a special 1D water path which can reduce energy loss in conduction.
          1. As 10 to 50 % of sunlight is diffusive, the cone structure of the device could collect more sunlight throughout the day, compared with a flat device. It can enhance solar-thermal conversion rate to 85 percent (up from 40% Currently).
          2. It will also open new possibilities to utilise solar energy in several sectors, which was discontinued due to its low conversion rate caused by losses in radiation, convection and conduction.
        7. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of USA approved an artificial-intelligence device called IDx-DR, that can detect diabetic eye problems, allowing doctors to diagnose the condition without need of any data or images. It uses artificial intelligence algorithm to analyse images of eye, taken with a retinal camera Topcon NW400.
        8. ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C41 successfully launched 1425 kg IRNSS-1I Navigation Satellite. IRNSS-1I is latest member of Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC) system (also known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS)).
          1. NAVIC is an independent regional navigation satellite system designed to provide position information in Indian region and 1,500 km around Indian mainland.
          2. The constellation consists 7 Satellites, planned to be expanded to 11.
        9. IT Firm Tech Mahindra partnered with breach avoidance platform provider Balbix to launch first AI (Artificial intelligence)-powered continuous threat assessment and prioritised actionable risk intelligence platform.
        10. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) lost contact with recently launched India’s communication GSAT-6A satellite. The second orbit raising operation of GSAT-6A was successfully carried out on March 31, 2018, but during third and final firing scheduled on April 1, 2018, communication with satellite was lost. Efforts by ISRO are on to re-establish communication with the satellite.
        11. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will launch several satellites in coming month.
          1. GSAT 7A - It will enable for Indian Air Force (IAF) to interlink different ground radar stations, airbases and Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft. It will be similar to Gsat-7 or Rukmini, launched in September 2013 for Indian Navy.
          2. RISAT - 2A - It is an advanced remote sensing satellite and will boost India’s surveillance capabilities.
        12. Indian Space and Research Organisation (ISRO) postponed launch of India’s second lunar mission ‘Chandrayaan-2’ from April 2018 to October-November 2018 -
          1. Chandrayaan 2 is India’s second mission to Moon, developed indigenously by ISRO with Orbiter, Lander and Rover configuration.
          2. It is ISRO’s first inter-planetary mission to land rover on any celestial body, to be launched on board Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk III (GSLV-F10). Orbiter weighs around 3,290 kg and it will orbit around moon and perform objectives of remote sensing moon.
        13. Indian scientists formulated world’s first ayurvedic drug to cure dengue, likely to be available by 2019. Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial (a medical study involving human participants) of this drug is going on in medical colleges in Karnataka.
        14. NASA successfully conducted Advanced Supersonic Parachute Inflation Research Experiment (ASPIRE) to test supersonic parachute that will help its space exploration missions to land on Mars.
          1. NASA’s Mars rover mission is set to launch in 2020 to deploy six-wheeled vehicle on martian surface to study rocks on site and cache samples for eventual return to Earth. It will rely on special parachute to slow spacecraft down when it is entering Martian atmosphere at over speed of 12,000 mph (5.4 kilometers per second).
        15. NASA will launch humanity’s first mission Parker Solar Probe (PSP) to Sun on July 31, 2018. After launch, probe will orbit directly through solar atmosphere (the corona), closer to surface than any human-made object has ever gone.
          1. It has been designed and built by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. It is named after solar astrophysicist Eugene Parker, first spacecraft of NASA to be named after living person.
          2. Probe will be fitted with thermal protection system (TPS) or heat shield made of reinforced carbon-carbon composite that will allow it to survive temperatures in Sun’s corona.
        16. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope discovered most distant star ever seen named 'Icarus, officially named MACS J1149+2223 Lensed Star 1. It took nine billion years for Icarus' light to reach Earth, captured through a phenomenon called 'Gravitational Lensing' that enormously intensifies star's feeble glow.
        17. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announced its plan of creating a manned supersonic aircraft with no ear-shattering sonic boom. NASA will grant $247.5 million contract to American aerospace Firm Lockheed Martin, to build the new plane called X-plane.
          1. X-Plane is expected to cruise at an elevation of more than 16,700 meters, at a speed of more than 1,500 km per hour but not make a sonic boom.
          2. Under NASA’s plan, beginning mid-2022, It will fly X-plane over select US cities and collect data about community responses to flights.
        18. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS 4) from Kwajalein Atoll in Marshall Islands, onboard a NASA Black Brant IX sounding rocket to study interstellar medium (matter between stars).
          1. Space between distant stars contains drifts of vast clouds of neutral molecules and charged plasma particles called interstellar medium, which may evolve into new stars and even planets with time.
          2. CHESS mission will focus on these floating interstellar reservoirs or translucent clouds of gas, which provide fundamental building blocks for stars and planets.
          3. CHESS 4 will study interaction of stellar wind with surrounding interstellar medium to study excitation of atoms and molecules in interface region. It will enable researchers to study catalysts of galactic chemistry and raw materials for future generations of stars and planets.
        19. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), a new planet-hunting spacecraft onboard of SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket. TESS is designed to find potential planets orbiting stars close to Earth. It will identify such planets by spotting decreased brightness of stars after planet passes in front of it.
        20. RH-300 MKII sounding rocket developed by IRSO’s Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) has been launched from Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station in Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala), under Sounding Rocket Experiment (SOUREX) programme for atmospheric studies.
          1. Objective is to measure neutral wind in dynamo region (80-120 km) of equatorial ionosphere using indigenously developed Electron Density and Neutral Wind Probe (ENWi).
          2. It will also perform cross-validation using an independent Tri Methyl Aluminium (TMA) release technique.
        21. Recent National Institute of Virology (NIV) study found that Indian Aedes aegypti mosquito that transmits dengue and chikungunya viruses is susceptible to zika virus. It was found that Indian Aedes aegypti mosquito infected with African strain MR-766 of zika virus (ZIKV) can transmit infection.
        22. Researchers discovered new class of antibiotics called odilorhabdins or ODLs that fights drug resistance, produced by symbiotic bacteria found in soil-dwelling nematode worms that colonise insects for food. Bacterium helps kill insect and secrete antibiotic to keep competing bacteria away.
          1. During research it was found that ODL act on ribosome (molecular machine that makes proteins cells needed to function) of bacterial cells. ODL like many clinically useful antibiotics, work by targeting ribosome. But ODL is unique because it binds to place on ribosome that has never been used by other known antibiotics.
        23. Researchers discovered new grass-like plant species named Fimbristylis agasthyamalaensis in Ponmudi hills within Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve in Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot (Spread across Kerala and Tamilnadu). New species of plant belongs to Cyperaceae family.
        24. Researchers from Britain's University of Portsmouth and US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a plastic-eating enzyme. Called Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, this enzyme is able to eat polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which was patented as plastic in 1940s. It can be used to fight one of world’s biggest pollution problems, called Plastic.
          1. Enzyme can also degrade polyethylene furandicarboxylate (PEF), a bio-based substitute for PET plastics that is being called as a replacement for glass beer bottles.
          2. Though PEF plastics are bio-based, they are not biodegradable and end up as a waste.
        25. Researchers from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Roorkee identified 2 small potent molecules Pep-I and Pep-II, for their inhibitory activity to treat Chikungunya disease. Small amount of concerned solution was able to achieve almost 99% reduction in virus. Currently, there are no drugs to treat chikungunya or any vaccine to prevent it.
        26. Researchers from Surat’s Veer Narmad South Gujarat University discovered world’s smallest land fern in Ahwa forests of the Western Ghats in Gujarat’s Dang district. New Malvi’s adder’s-tongue fern Ophioglossum malviae is just one centimetre in size.
        27. Scientists at Northwestern University (USA) led by India's Vinod Kumar Sangwan (India), developed “Memtransistor”, an electronic device that can mimic human brain, combining functions of a memristor and a transistor.
        28. Scientists completed first test drive of a DNA ‘unicycle’ – a tiny machine made of genetic material powered by chemical energy that could perform directed movements, developed by Researchers from University of Bonn (Germany) and University of Michigan (USA). The tiny vehicle is 30 nanometers in size and Fuel is given by protein T7 RNA polymerase.
        29. Scientists discovered a giant mosquito with a wingspan of 11.15 centimetres in China’s Sichuan province, belonging to world’s largest mosquito species Holorusia mikado. This species was first found in Japan and normally has wing span of 8 centimetres.
        30. Scientists from CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR-IMMT) found four bacterial strains that remove sulphur from fossil fuels such as petroleum and coal. Sulphur is one of the major pollutants emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels. Bacterial strains are Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Arthrobacter sulfureou, Gordonia rubropertinita and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Bio-desulfurization using these bacterial strains can be used on commercial scale for removal of sulphur from fossil fuels on commercial scale.
        31. Scientists from Pennsylvania State University (USA) discovered signs of life in a massive cave in Italy, located about 1300 feet below ground. It may help detect life on other planets like Mars. Identification was made by researchers while exploring Frasassi Caves in central Italy. Scientists found variations in isotopic content of atoms in mineral gypsum, a weathering product of cave's formation.
          1. Study stated that not all gypsum is formed by microbes, but gypsum formed by microbes will have a different ratio of isotopes in atoms.• This isotopic variation indicates that life played an active role in producing gypsum.
        32. Scientists identified a new species of frog called Fejervarya goemchi,in highland plateaus of Western Ghats parts of Goa. It was identified using combination of morphology, geographic distribution range and molecular methods to distinguish from other Fejervarya species found in South and South-East Asia.
        33. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved use of Acuvue Oasys Contact Lenses with Transitions Light Intelligent Technology, world’s first contact lens that automatically darkens when exposed to bright light. These contact lens are soft contact lenses indicated for daily use to correct vision of people with non-diseased eyes who are nearsighted (myopic) or farsighted (hyperopic).
        34. Weather scientists predicted normal monsoon in June-September 2018 monsoon season as prevailing conditions as well as neutral ENSO were favourable for good monsoon rainfall.
          1. India receives 89 cm of rainfall during four-month monsoon season, which is almost 75% of its annual rainfall.
          2. Most important favourable condition for good monsoon is near-neutral to neutral ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) in equatorial Pacific Ocean, off coast of South America.
          3. Moreover, La Niña conditions are present and equatorial sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are below average across central and eastern Pacific Ocean. Transition from La Niña to ENSO-neutral is likely during March-May season, with neutral conditions to continue in second half of year.

        1. 'Son of Dreams' has been unveiled as official Mascot of FIBA Basketball World Cup 2019 to be held in 8 Chinese Cities in August to September 2019.
        2. 2018 Asian Youth and Junior Weightlifting Championships in Urgench (Uzbekistan) -
          1. India won 6 Medals, 5 in Youth Championships and 1 in Junior Championships (Bronze by JEREMY Lalrinnunga).
          2. Medals in Youth Championships - SURAJIT Changmai (Bronze), GOGOI Sidhant (Bronze), JACOB Vanlaltluanga (Bronze), SHEULI Achinta (Silver), JEREMY Lalrinnunga (Silver).
          3. India will host Asian Weightlifting Championships in 2019.
        3. 2018 Badminton Asia Championships Held in Wuhan (China) -
          1. Winners -
            1. EventGoldSilverBronze
              Men's singles Kento Momota (Japan) Chen Long (China) Lee Chong Wei (Malaysia)
               H. S. Prannoy (India)
              Women's singles Tai Tzu-ying (Chinese Taipei) Chen Yufei (China) Saina Nehwal (India)
               Sung Ji-hyun (South Korea)
              Men's doubles Li Junhui (China)
               Liu Yuchen (China)
               Takeshi Kamura (Japan)
               Keigo Sonoda (Japan)
               Huang Kaixiang (China)
               Wang Yilü (China)
               Liu Cheng (China)
               Zhang Nan (China)
              Women's doubles Yuki Fukushima (Japan)
               Sayaka Hirota (Japan)
               Misaki Matsutomo (Japan)
               Ayaka Takahashi (Japan)
               Della Destiara Haris (Indonesia)
               Rizki Amelia Pradipta (Indonesia)
               Kim So-yeong (South Korea)
               Kong Hee-yong (South Korea)
              Mixed doubles Wang Yilü (China)
               Huang Dongping (China)
               Tontowi Ahmad (Indonesia)
               Liliyana Natsir (Indonesia)
               Zheng Siwei (China)
               Huang Yaqiong (China)
               Zhang Nan (China)
               Li Yinhui (China)
          2. Medal Table -
            1. RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
              1 China2248
              2 Japan2204
              3 Chinese Taipei1001
              4 Indonesia0112
               South Korea0022
              7 Malaysia0011
        4. 2018 Barcelona Open Banco Sabadell Men's Tennis Title -
          1. Singles - Rafael Nadal (Spain)
          2. Doubles - Spain's Feliciano López AND Marc López
        5. 2018 Hyundai Archery World Cup Round 1 (Shanghai (China)) -
          1. India - (2 Bronze). Medalists -
            1. Bronze for Abhishek Verma (Coumpund Men)
            2. Bronze for Recurve Mixed Team (Atanu Das and Ankita Bhakat).
        6. 2018 Kunming Open Tennis Title (China) -
          1. Men's Singles - Prajnesh Gunneswaran (India), defeated Mohamed Safawat (Egypt)
          2. Women's Singles - Irina Khromacheva (Russia)
          3. Men's Doubles -Aliaksandr Bury (Belarus) AND Lloyd Harris (South Africa)
          4. Women's Doubles - Dalila Jakupović (Slovenia) AND Irina Khromacheva (Russia)
        7. 2018 Monte - Carlo Masters Men's Tennis Tournament (France) -
          1. Singles - Rafael Nadal (Spain)
          2. Doubles - USA's Bob Bryan AND Mike Bryan
        8. Barcelona FC became first team in 85 years to win four straight Copa del Rey Football titles after defeating Sevilla.
        9. Barcelona FC defeated Deportivo to win La Liga Football League Title (Spain) for 25th time. Barcelona also extended their league record unbeaten streak to 34 matches.
        10. Bayern Munich FC won German Footnall League called Bundesliga for 28th time, defeating Augsburg.
        11. Bengaluru FC won inaugural edition of Super Cup Football tournament in Bhubaneswar (Odisha), defeating Kolkata football giants East Bengal.
        12. Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) recommended Rahul Dravid for Dronacharya award,Virat Kohli’s for Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna honour and Sunil Gavaskar for Dhyan Chand Lifetime Achievement Award.
        13. ESPN Multi-Sport Awards -
          1. Badminton players, PV Sindhu and Kidambi Srikanth named Sportspersons of the Year in Male and Female Categories.
          2. Badinton Coach Pullela Gopichand adjudged ‘best coach’.
          3. Indian Women’s Hockey Team got ‘Team of the Year’ title.
        14. Egyptian Football Player forward Mohamed Salah is named Player of the Year by England’s Professional Footballers’ Association (PFA).
        15. FC Goa and Forca Goa Foundation introduced FC Goa Soccer Schools as a soccer programme for kids, aimed at developing football in Goa and to provide opportunity to more children to play it.
        16. Ferrari’s German Racer Sebastian Vettel won Bahrain Grand Prix title.
          1. 2018 Formula 1 (F1) Calendar-
            1. SerialGrand PrixDateWinner
              1Australian Grand Prix25 MarchSebastian Vettel (Germany)
              2Bahrain Grand Prix8 AprilSebastian Vettel (Germany)
              3Chinese Grand Prix15 April
              4Azerbaijan Grand Prix29 April
              5Spanish Grand Prix13 May
              6Monaco Grand Prix27 May
              7Canadian Grand Prix10 June
              8French Grand Prix24 June
              9Austrian Grand Prix1 July
              10British Grand Prix8 July
              11German Grand Prix22 July
              12Hungarian Grand Prix29 July
              13Belgian Grand Prix26 August
              14Italian Grand Prix2 September
              15Singapore Grand Prix16 September
              16Russian Grand Prix30 September
              17Japanese Grand Prix7 October
              18USA Grand Prix21 October
              19Mexican Grand Prix28 October
              20Brazilian Grand Prix11 November
              21Abu Dhabi Grand Prix25 November
        17. Indian Cricketers Virat Kohli and Mithali Raj respectively were named as Wisden’s leading male cricketer and standout female cricketer of the year. England's Female Cricketers Heather Knight, Anya Shrubsole and Natalie Sciver are also named among Wisden's five cricketers of the year.
        18. Indian tennis’ Player Leander Paes became most successful doubles player in history of Davis Cup, after he won his record 43rd title along with Rohan Bopanna.
        19. International Cricket Council (ICC) approved granting International status to all Twenty20 matches between Member Nations. It is a part of wider strategic aim of using the T20 format to globalize the game. All Member women’s teams will be awarded T20I status on 1 July 2018, whilst all Member men’s teams will be awarded T20I status on 1 January 2019.
        20. International Shooting Sport Federation ISSF World Cup 2018 Leg 2 (Changwon, South Korea) -
          1. India could win 1 Silver medal at ISSF WC Leg 2, won by Shahzar Rizvi in 10 metre men's air pistol.
          2. In ISSF World Cup 2018 Leg 1 in Guadalajara (Mexico), India topped medal tally with 4 Gold, 1 Silver and 4 bronze medals (9 Medals).
          3. India's Total Medal Tally in ISSF WC 2018 stands at 10 Medals, as of now. Medal Tally after Leg 2 looks like -
          4. RankNation Gold Silver BronzeTotal
            1 China64212
            2 United States5139
            3 India42410
            4 Russia3205
            5 Finland2013
        21. Kerala won their sixth Santosh Trophy Football title, defeating Bengal.
        22. Kidambi Srikanth became first Indian male badminton player to attain world number 1 ranking, since Prakash Padukone in 1980s.
        23. Mario Abdo Benítez has been elected as New president of South American Nation Paraguay.
        24. Mercedes’ British driver Lewis Hamilton won the Formula 1 Azerbaijan Grand Prix 2018.
          1. 2018 Formula 1 (F1) Calendar-
            1. SerialGrand PrixDateWinner
              1Australian Grand Prix25 MarchSebastian Vettel (Germany)
              2Bahrain Grand Prix8 AprilSebastian Vettel (Germany)
              3Chinese Grand Prix15 AprilDaniel Ricciardo (Australia)
              4Azerbaijan Grand Prix29 AprilLewis Hamilton (UK)
              5Spanish Grand Prix13 May
              6Monaco Grand Prix27 May
              7Canadian Grand Prix10 June
              8French Grand Prix24 June
              9Austrian Grand Prix1 July
              10British Grand Prix8 July
              11German Grand Prix22 July
              12Hungarian Grand Prix29 July
              13Belgian Grand Prix26 August
              14Italian Grand Prix2 September
              15Singapore Grand Prix16 September
              16Russian Grand Prix30 September
              17Japanese Grand Prix7 October
              18USA Grand Prix21 October
              19Mexican Grand Prix28 October
              20Brazilian Grand Prix11 November
              21Abu Dhabi Grand Prix25 November
        25. Miami Open Tennis 2018 (USA) -
          1. Men’s Singles - John Isner (USA)
          2. Women’s Singles - Sloane Stephens (USA)
          3. Men’s Doubles - Mike Bryan (USA), Bob Bryan (USA)
          4. Women’s Doubles - CoCo Vandeweghe (USA), Ashleigh Barty (Australia)
        26. Misc. Sports Events (April 2018) -
          1. 17th Sub-junior National Wushu Championships held in Jammu.
          2. India defeated Bangladesh to win fifth South East Asian Women Handball Championship, in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).
          3. India’s Selena Selvakumar and Shreya Shivakumar won 2 bronze medals at 2018 Ivory Coast Junior and Cadet Open Table Tennis Tournament in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire).
          4. 8th South Asian Judo Championships held in Lalitpur (Nepal). India won 10 Gold medals and stayed on top. India won all 7 Gold medals in Women's events and men won 4 Gold medals. Next South Asian Judo Championships will be held in Bangladesh.
          5. 16th Federation Cup Junior National athletics championships held at Coimbatore (Tamilnadu). This meet will serve as selections trials for 18th Asian Junior Athletic Meet to be held at Gifu (Japan) in June.
          6. Asian Armwrestling Championships and Para Armwrestling Championships 2018 held in Kazakhstan. India's Differently-abled Indian arm wrestler Shrimant Jha won a bronze medal in 80kg senior category.
          7. India will host Asian Weightlifting Championship in 2019.
          8. Iindia’s CA Bhavani Devi won silver medal in sabre event of Tournoi World Cup Satellite Fencing Championship in Reykjavik (Iceland).
          9. 56th Belgrade International Boxing Championship held at Belgrade in Serbia. Indian boxers won 3 gold, 5 silver and 5 bronze medals.
        27. Monterrey Open Women's Tennis 2018 (Mexico) -
          1. Women's singles - Garbiñe Muguruza (Spain)
          2. Women's doubles - Naomi Broady (United Kingdom) & Sara Sorribes Tormo (Spain)
        28. Mumbai Football Arena will host inaugural edition of 4 nation Intercontinental Cup to be held in June 2018 and will see participation of South Africa, New Zealand and Chinese Taipei.
        29. Red Bull’s Australian Racer Daniel Ricciardo won Chinese Grand Prix 2018.
          1. 2018 Formula 1 (F1) Calendar-
            1. SerialGrand PrixDateWinner
              1Australian Grand Prix25 MarchSebastian Vettel (Germany)
              2Bahrain Grand Prix8 AprilSebastian Vettel (Germany)
              3Chinese Grand Prix15 AprilDaniel Ricciardo (Australia)
              4Azerbaijan Grand Prix29 April
              5Spanish Grand Prix13 May
              6Monaco Grand Prix27 May
              7Canadian Grand Prix10 June
              8French Grand Prix24 June
              9Austrian Grand Prix1 July
              10British Grand Prix8 July
              11German Grand Prix22 July
              12Hungarian Grand Prix29 July
              13Belgian Grand Prix26 August
              14Italian Grand Prix2 September
              15Singapore Grand Prix16 September
              16Russian Grand Prix30 September
              17Japanese Grand Prix7 October
              18USA Grand Prix21 October
              19Mexican Grand Prix28 October
              20Brazilian Grand Prix11 November
              21Abu Dhabi Grand Prix25 November
        30. XXI (21st) Commonwealth Games 2018, Held at Gold Coast, Queensland Country (Australia) -
          1. About -
            1. Motto - Share theDream.
            2. 4426 Athletes from 71 Commonwealth Nations participated in 275 Events of 19 sports.
            3. Borobi is Official mascot of 2018 Commonwealth Games. Borobi is a blue koala, with indigenous markings on its body.
          2. Medal Tally -
            1. RankCGAGoldSilverBronzeTotal
              1 Australia 805959198
              2 England454546136
              3 India 26202066
              4 Canada 15402782
              5 New Zealand 15161546
              6 South Africa 13111337
              7 Wales 10121436
              8 Scotland 9132244
              9 Nigeria 99624
              10 Cyprus 81514
          3. India at CWG 2018 -
            1. PV Sindhu was flag-bearer of Indian contingent for opening ceremony.
            2. India Finished 3rd with 66 Medals (26 Gold, 20 Silver and 20 Bronze), better than 5th Place India had in 2014 CWG Games in Glasgow (Scotland) with 64 Medals (15 G, 30 S, 19 B).
            3. Indian Gold Medalists at CWG 2018 -
              1. Saikhom Mirabai Chanu - Weightlifting Women's 48 kg
              2. Khumukcham Sanjita Chanu - Weightlifting Women's 53 kg
              3. Sathish Sivalingam - Weightlifting Men's 77 kg
              4. Ragala Venkat Rahul - Weightlifting Men's 85 kg
              5. Punam Yadav - Weightlifting Women's 69 kg
              6. Manu Bhaker - Shooting Women's 10 metre air pistol
              7. Table tennis Women's team (Manika Batra, Mouma Das,Sutirtha Mukherjee,Madhurika Patkar, Pooja Sahasrabudhe )
              8. Jitu Rai - Shooting Men's 10 metre air pistol
              9. Table tennis Men's team (Sharath Achanta, Anthony Amalraj, Harmeet Desai, Sanil Shetty, Sathiyan Gnanasekaran)
              10. Badminton Mixed team (Pranav Chopra, Prannoy Kumar, Saina Nehwal, Ashwini Ponnappa, Satwiksairaj Rankireddy, Sikki Reddy, Chirag Shetty, Gadde Ruthvika, Shivani, P V Sindhu, Kidambi Srikanth)
              11. Heena Sidhu - Shooting Women's 25 metre pistol
              12. Shreyasi Singh - Shooting Women's double trap
              13. Rahul Aware - Wrestling Men's freestyle 57 kg
              14. Sushil Kumar - Wrestling Men's freestyle 74 kg
              15. Tejaswini Sawant - Shooting Women's 50m rifle 3 positions
              16. Anish Bhanwala - Shooting Men's 25 metre rapid fire pistol
              17. Bajrang Punia - Wrestling Men's freestyle 65 kg
              18. Mary Kom - Boxing Women's light flyweight 48 kg
              19. Sanjeev Rajput - Shooting Men's 50m rifle 3 positions
              20. Gaurav Solanki - Boxing Men's flyweight 52 kg
              21. Neeraj Chopra - Athletics Men's javelin throw
              22. Sumit Malik - Wrestling Men's freestyle 125 kg
              23. Vinesh Phogat - Wrestling Women's freestyle 50 kg
              24. Manika Batra - Table tennis Women's singles
              25. Vikas Krishan Yadav - Boxing Men's middleweight 75 kg
              26. Saina Nehwal - Badminton Women's singles (Beating India's P V Sindhu)

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