Current Affairs Current Affairs - 13 December 2017 - Vikalp Education

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Current Affairs - 13 December 2017

General Affairs 

An Ailing Sharad Pawar Leads Anti-Government Rally
  • After 37 years, veteran politician and National Congress Party President Sharad Pawar hit the streets on his 77th birthday on Tuesday, leading a massive 'Jan Aakrosh Halla Bol' procession, jointly with Congress and other parties, against the BJP-Shiv Sena government.

    The procession, led by an ailing Sharad Pawar - who recently underwent a toe surgery - started from Dhanwate National College grounds to the Maharashtra Legislature which has currently assembled for the winter session in the state's second capital.

    The procession saw the participation of top Congress leaders like former Union Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad, state Congress President Ashok Chavan, and others from the Congress and the NCP, besides over 200,000 farmers and party workers from entire Vidarbha region of eastern Maharashtra, NCP state spokesperson Nawab Malik said.

    "In 1980, Pawar had led a similar procession on bicycle from Jalgaon to Nagpur to fight for farmers issues. This time, it's a commemoration of that procession for the cause of farmers who are being denied justice under the present Bharatiya Janata Party-Shiv Sena at the centre and in Maharashtra," Nawab Malik told IANS.

    Later, Mr Azad, Sharad Pawar and other senior leaders from the their parties, besides other smaller or regional parties like Samajwadi Party, Peasants & Workers Party, Republican Party of India among other addressed the gathering near the legislature building.

    Tuesday's procession-cum-rally is part of the ongoing agitation launched by the NCP on December 1, in different parts of the state intended to "condemn and awaken the sleeping state government on its various unfulfilled promises" for the people of Maharashtra.

    These include the Minimum Support Price for farmers for agriculture produce, the disbursement of the farm loans waiver package announced by Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis in June, and other issues, he added.

"Will Make 1+ 1 = 11," PM Narendra Modi Promises Gujarat As Campaigning Ends
  • After his road show was cancelled today, Prime Minister Narendra Modi took off from the Sabarmati river on a seaplane to Mehsana, where he offered prayers at a temple, before flying back to Ahmedabad. He stood on the footboard of the plane as it took off waving to the crowds that stood cheering on the banks of the river. After de-boarding, he stood on the footboard of an SUV and waved to people.

    After addressing over 25 rallies in the last 15 days, on the last day of campaigning for the Gujarat elections, PM Modi made no public speech. He made his emotional vote appeal on Twitter, urging his home state to vote in record numbers on Thursday, when polling for the second and last phase of elections will be held. "I call upon the people of Gujarat to not only give the BJP an overwhelming majority but also ensure that BJP wins in every polling booth across the state," the prime minister said.

    "The lies that our worthy opponents have spread, about Gujarat, Gujarat's growth and about me personally is something I had never imagined. It is natural for every Gujarati to feel hurt. People of Gujarat will give a fitting reply to the negativity and lies of the opposition," the Prime Minister said, taking on Congress president designate Rahul Gandhi, who wrapped up his Gujarat campaign earlier in the day with a press conference in Ahmedabad, where he attacked PM Modi and the BJP over a list of issues and promised to reverse the fate of the people of Gujarat, who he alleged were deprived of real growth with the ruling BJP initiating "only one-sided development."

    PM Modi pitched to Gujarat the advantages of having a BJP government both the Centre and the state. "With the Government of India and Government of Gujarat working together, the strength rises manifold. This 1+ 1 is not 2 but 11 and together we will take Gujarat to new heights, the Prime Minister tweeted, also saying, "Victory of BJP is a guarantee for a bright future."

    Both PM Modi and Rahul Gandhi had planned to end the high-octave Gujarat campaign with road shows in Ahmedabad. Both were cancelled with the Gujarat police refusing permission for fear of law and order problems.

    Rahul Gandhi asserted in his press conference that the Congress is set to wrest control of Gujarat from the BJP, promising a "zabardast" verdict on Monday next. In a jibe at the Prime Minister's sea-plane ride, Rahul Gandhi said it was "a distraction from the main issues of Gujarat."

    Voting will be held in 93 constituencies of Gujarat on Thursday. Polling for 89 of the state's 182 seats was held on Saturday last. Votes will be counted on Monday next, December 18.

India And Australia Hold First Meet On Strategic And Defence Ties
  • India and Australia today reviewed all aspects of bilateral ties with a focus on strategic and defence relations during their first '2+2 dialogue' and agreed that a free, open and inclusive Indo-Pacific is in the long-term interests of all countries in the region.

    Significantly, the inaugural Indo-Australia dialogue comes barely a month after the two countries along with the US and Japan, discussed cooperation amid evolving security scenarios in the Indo-Pacific region where China has been aggressively expanding its military presence.

    While India already has a '2+2 dialogue' with Japan, it has also agreed to start a two-by-two ministerial dialogue to enhance "peace and stability across the Indo-Pacific region".

    The Indian side was led by Foreign Secretary S Jaishankar and Defence Secretary Sanjay Mitra while the Australian side was headed by Secretary of Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Frances Adamson, and Secretary of Department of Defence Greg Moriarty.

    "All aspects of bilateral relations with a focus on strategic and defence relations between the two countries were reviewed... Both sides agreed that a free, open, prosperous and inclusive Indo-Pacific region serves the long-term interests of all countries in the region and of the world at large," a press release from the external affairs ministry said.

    It said India and Australia share warm bilateral relations based on shared democratic values and pluralism and there is a growing convergence of strategic perspectives between the two countries.

    Last month, officials from India, Japan, the US and Australia held consultations on the sidelines of the India-ASEAN meet and discussed issues of common interest in the Indo-Pacific region with a focus on cooperation based on converging vision and values for promotion  of peace, stability and prosperity in the area.

    After the quadrilateral, the MEA said, "they agreed that a free, open, prosperous and inclusive Indo-Pacific region serves the long-term interests of all countries in the region and of the world at large. The officials also exchanged views on addressing common challenges of terrorism and proliferation linkages impacting the region as well as on enhancing

    Adamson is also meeting Secretary (East) and Secretary (ER) in the MEA, the release said.

    Apart from attending the dialogue, Moriarty also met Chief of Staff Committee and Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Sunil Lanba and visited Rajputana Rifles Regimental Centre here. 

Those Who Complain About EVMs Are The Ones Defeated: Ex-Poll Panel Chief
  • Amid a raging debate over the trustworthiness of the electronic voting machines (EVMs), former chief election commissioner T S Krishnamurthy today said they were credible, robust and reliable as "machines do not go wrong, it's men who do".

    He said that history has suggested that those who complain against the EVMs ever since they were introduced were always from the defeated parties.

    "See the history of who has complained. It's always been the defeated party," Mr Krishnamurthy told PTI in an interview.

    He said, "(former late Tamil Nadu chief minister) Jayalalithaa and Amarinder Singh went to the Supreme Court (in the past). (After) they won in the next elections, they kept quiet."

    "Amarinder Singh has come to power (in Punjab) this time also with the use of the EVMs," he said.

    Asked if he has "unwavering faith" in the EVMs and their "infallibility", Mr Krishnamurthy said: "Absolutely, unless and until somebody is going to prove to me that it (manipulation) can be done. To the best of knowledge and with my experience, the EVMs are credible, reliable and robust."

    On reports of malfunctioning of some of the EVMs in elections, Mr Krishnamurthy said, "Machines don't go wrong, it's men who go wrong."

    He said the EVMs malfunction because those who handle them do not know how to operate or they may have made some application errors or may not have been well-trained. Examinations later revealed there was nothing wrong with those machines.

    In cases of malfunctioning, the Election Commission immediately replaces the EVMs to "improve credibility and people's perception" and not because they have become faulty. Terming the EVMs as "nation's pride", Mr Krishnamurthy said because of them, "we are able to save so much of paper and so much of time."

    In the earlier paper ballot system, there have been a number of instances in some parts of the country where ballot papers were thrust into the machines and sometimes ballot boxes were taken away.

    "On the whole, I don't see any reason to question the credibility of machines. It's absolutely robust and credible. I have no doubt about it," he said.

    Mr Krishnamurthy said those who criticise the EVMs were doing so either out of ignorance or due to the fact that they want to find an excuse for their defeat.

    Stating that the EVMs have built-in safeguards, he wondered as to how chips can be replaced when they are kept in police stations and store-rooms guarded by the CRPF personnel and at polling stations. "It's more of an apprehension than a reality."

    "Candidates' names (in EVMs) are listed alphabetically, and not in order of people of particular political party. In every constituency the order of any party will be different from other. How can you manipulate machines? It's more in mind than actual practice," he said.

    "Somebody said chip can be changed and (EVMs) can be remotedly operated), both are impossible," Mr Krishnamurthy said.

    According to him, those who make the charge that the EVMs can be manipulated and tampered with, they should demonstrate so before an independent body of IIT professors, experts and eminent technical personnel.

    "If they want, they can (also) certainly challenge it in any court; they are (now) doing it (only) in public-speaking," Mr Krishnamurthy said.
    He cautioned that going back to paper ballots would be the "most retrograde step."

    "So many safeguards built in (EVMs), I feel sorry that political parties are not responsible in their criticism," he said.

1,500 Pending Cases Against Lawmakers, 12 Special Courts Planned For Quick Trial
  • A dozen special courts will be set up to fast track cases against lawmakers across the country and Rs. 7.8 crore has been allocated for it, the government told the Supreme Court today. With more than 1,500 cases pending against lawmakers across the country till 2014, the court had asked the Centre to chalk-out a plan for exclusive fast-track courts and ear-mark funds for speedy disposal of the cases.

    The top court is hearing a petition from Ashwini Kumar Upadhyay, a lawyer and a member of the BJP, who has also argued against the present system of barring a convicted lawmaker from contesting elections for six years. The petitioner said a lifetime-ban is required - a suggestion the top court had agreed with during the last hearing on November 1.

    If the court decides on a life-time ban, it could end the electoral career of politicians like Lalu Yadav, the former Chief Minister of Bihar convicted in fodder scam, and stop VK Sasikala - currently in jail in a corruption case - from beginning one.

    The Centre and the Election Commission have been at odds over the duration of the ban. The Centre has taken the stance that the current six years is enough. The Election Commission has supported a lifetime ban after an initial ambivalent stand, that had received a sharp response from the court. "If you don't want to be independent, constrained by the legislature, say so," the bench had remarked.

    During the last hearing, the top court had also asked the Centre for an update on the status of the 1,581 cases filed against lawmakers of the states and Centre since 2014. The judges had asked how many of the cases had been disposed of within a year and how many had ended in conviction or acquittal.

Business Affairs

Industrial output hits 3-month low of 2.2% in October on sluggish manufacturing
  • Industrial production for October stands at 2.2 per cent higher as compared to the level in October 2016, data released by the Central Statistics Office said on Tuesday. The cumulative growth for the April-October 2017 period over the corresponding period of the previous year stands at 2.5 per cent. Experts cite subdued performance of manufacturing and mining sectors and a contraction in consumer durables output as a major reason behind sluggish growth. The Index of Industrial Production (IIP), a measure of factory output, saw a rise of 4.2 per cent in October 2016.
    When compared on a monthly basis, the IIP grew 4.14 per cent in September this year. Industrial output rose by a meagre 2.5 per cent in April-October this fiscal as compared to 5.5 per cent in the same period of 2016-17. In October, growth in the manufacturing sector, which accounts for 77.63 per cent of the index, slowed to 2.5 per cent from 4.8 per cent a year earlier. During April-October, manufacturing grew by 2.1 per cent, down from 5.9 per cent in the same period last fiscal. Consumer durable goods output contracted by 6.9 per cent in October as against a growth of 1.5 per cent in the same month of the previous year. During the first seven months of this fiscal, the output of these goods declined by 1.9 per cent as against a growth of 6 per cent last year.
    Electricity generation rose 3.2 per cent in October as compared to 3 per cent a year before. The mining activity recorded almost flat growth of 0.2 per cent in the month under review as against 1 per cent growth in October 2016. According to use-based classification, the growth rates in October 2017 over the year-ago month are 2.5 per cent in primary goods, 6.8 per cent in capital goods, 0.2 per cent in intermediate goods and 5.2 per cent in infrastructure/ construction goods.
    The consumer non-durables have recorded a growth of 7.7 per cent. In terms of industries, 10 out of 23 industry groups in the manufacturing sector have shown positive growth during October 2017 as compared to the corresponding month of the previous year. The industry group 'Manufacture of pharmaceuticals, medicinal chemical and botanical products' has shown the highest positive growth of 23 per cent followed by 12.8 per cent in 'Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi- trailers' and 9.7 per cent in 'Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products'.
    On the other hand, the industry group 'Other manufacturing' has shown the highest negative growth of (-) 36.4 per cent followed by (-) 20.9 per cent in 'Manufacture of tobacco products' and (-) 16.1 per cent in 'Manufacture of rubber and plastic products'.

Retail inflation breaches RBI estimates to reach 15-month high of 4.88%
  • The retail inflation for the month of November reached 4.88 per cent, touching a 15-month high on the back on rise in food and fuel prices. The inflation numbers  also exceeded RBI estimates that retail inflation numbers will remain within 4.2 per cent to 4.6 per cent. In its bi-monthly monetary policy statement released in October, the Reserve Bank of India had projected inflation to stay in the range of 4.2 to 4.6 in the second half of the current year.
    Inflation in eggs shot to 7.95 per cent in November on annual basis, compared to 0.69 per cent in the previous month. In the fuel and light segment, retail inflation was 7.92 per cent. For vegetables it was 22.48 per cent in November. The inflation in the segment was a only 7.47 per cent in October.
    However, in the pulses segment the print continued to show disinflationary trend as it contracted by 23.53 per cent on annual basis. On overall basis, the inflation in the food segment increased to 4.42 per cent in November as compared to 1.9 per cent in the preceding month.
    RBI has now increased its inflation projection to the range 4.3-4.7 per cent for the remainder of the current fiscal which ends in March 2018, according to a Reuters report. The report further added that inflation will remain above the 4-per-cent mark in 2018, making rate cuts improbable.
    The uptick in retail inflation could push the central bank to increase policy rates in the comimg days. In its last meeting, the Monetary Policy Committee had left the policy interest rates unchanged, with repo rate at 6.00 per cent and reverse repo rate at 5.75 per cent. Despite the pressure, RBI had refrained from cutting interest rates since the last decrease in August, on account of inflationary trends.
    Retail inflation, measured by year-on-year change in the Consumer Price Index (CPI), recorded a seven-month high at 3.58 per cent in October, driven by a sharp uptick in momentum, tempered partly by some favourable base effects. The CPI in November 2017 saw a monthly growth of 1.1 per cent in comparision to October 2017, whereas Consumer Food Price Index rose 1.58 per cent.
    Spurred by increase in fruit and vegetables prices, annual retail food inflation climbed to 4.42 per cent in November from 1.90 percent the previous month. Meanwhile, fuel inflation quickened to 7.92 per cent from 6.36 per cent, driven by rise in global prices of crude oil.
    The Reserve Bank's survey of households showed inflation expectations firming up in the latest round for both three months ahead and one year ahead horizons. The October bi-monthly statement projected inflation to rise and range between 4.2-4.6 per cent in the second half of this year, including the impact of increase in house rent allowance (HRA) by the Centre. The headline inflation outcomes have evolved broadly in line with projections.

Supreme Court comes down heavily on NCLT for ordering Unitech takeover
  • Calling the NCLT's recent ruling on Unitech "disturbing", the Supreme Court on Tuesday slammed the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) for directing the government to form 10-member nominee board to initiate the takeover process at a time when the SC is hearing the case. The apex court, approached by Unitech against the NCLT order, said when "we are hearing this matter how can NCLT pass orders. It is disturbing". The top court said the government should have sought its permission before approaching the tribunal for the company takeover and suspension of its board of directors. With the SC observation coming out contrary to the tribunal's order, it remains to be seen how the government and the NCLT will react to the issue. The top court has now asked the government to come up with suggestions on protecting interests of home buyers' who had invested their money with the debt-ridden realtor.
    The Principal Bench of the NCLT on Friday allowed the government to appoint 10-nominee directors by December 20 to take over the Unitech management on its directions as the Corporate Affairs Ministry moved the tribunal against real estate firm over mismanagement, siphoning of funds, and its failure to complete construction of projects in time. The tribunal also restrained its eight suspended directors from selling personal or company properties. The tribunal was told that since the company had not protected the buyers' interests, its board of directors and chief financial officer should be suspended under the Companies Act, 2013.
    With a total debt of over Rs 6,000 crore, the company has not been able to deliver over 16,000 units from its 70 housing projects spread in different parts of the country. The realtor owes over Rs 723 crore to its 20,000 home buyers and 51,000 depositors. The "overambitious" Unitech, which once boasted big plans for its pan-India presence, has suffered a fall from grace, with over Rs 16,000-crore market value in 2010 to Rs 1,900 crore in December 2017. Market observers say the company couldn't sense the slump in the real estate sector globally.
    Senior advocate Ranjit Kumar, appearing for Unitech and its jailed promoters, referred to the recent NCLT order of company takeover, saying with the tribunal asking the government to take over the company, it's very difficult for them to deposit Rs 750 crore as directed by the SC. The apex court on October 30 asked the real estate group to deposit Rs 750 crore by December end to protect the buyers' money. "How do I comply with the Supreme Court order? My bank accounts have been frozen on November 21," the lawyer said, reported PTI. "The nominated Directors (of the government) shall have to comply with the orders of the Supreme Court," the bench said, adding that for it, the interests of homebuyers were paramount and they cannot be equated with the investors. "We are more concerned for the homebuyers and not for the company and not for the fixed depositors. Homebuyers are not investors or fixed depositors," the bench said, the agency added.
    Earlier, the Supreme Court had asked the authorities to arrange a meeting between Unitech's jailed promoter Sanjay Chandra and the company officials so that they could come up with a plan to raise Rs 750 crore. Chandra's bail was rejected by the Delhi high court on August 11 in a criminal case lodged against him in 2015 on a complaint by buyers of the company's housing projects - 'Wild Flower Country' and 'Anthea Project'- Gurugram.

ED to issue show cause notices to 35 individuals in Panama Papers case
  • The Enforcement Directorate (ED) would issue show cause notices to around 35 individuals whose name appeared in the Panama Paper leaks. The ED is investigating 45 such cases, a report of which would be sent to prime minister on December 15.
    The Panama Papers contained particulars of about 426 Indians or persons of Indian origin, who had/have companies in tax haven.
    Sources from ED said that out of the 45 cases that they are investigating only around five of them are of serious nature, where the individuals had not informed the tax department of their offshore accounts or companies. Rest of them are more of technical violations and not serious violations.
    An ED official said that in many cases individuals have set up companies in tax haven for the purpose of buying properties in the name of such companies  in countries where there is estate tax on individuals.

    India ranked 109 out of 122 countries in mobile internet speed; below Pakistan, Nepal
    • Have you been struggling to open that video on your mobile phone you have been trying to watch for hours now? Fret not; we are all together in this. Popular speed testing service, Ookla has released its November edition of the Speedtest Global Index, and not surprisingly India did not fare very well. Out of 122 countries, India was ranked a disheartening 109 for mobile internet speed, while we stood a little better, but not at a very encouraging 76 out of 133 countries for broadband speed.
      Ookla said that it analyses the performance of the Internet in every country based on consumer-initiated tests taken by real people using Speedtest.
      The index reveals that mobile speed for November is 8.80 mbps, which is much better than 7.65 mbps that was earlier in the year. "That's a 15% increase," the report mentioned. However, the speed fell slightly in November from October's 8.83 mbps.
      Currently Norway has the fastest mobile network with an average speed of 62.66 mbps, followed by Netherlands with 53.01 mbps, Iceland with 52.78 mbps, Singapore with 51.50 mbps and Malta in the fifth spot with 50.46 mbps. In fact, India fares rather poorly not only globally but also in comparison to its neighbours. China has a speed of 31.22 mbps, Pakistan with 13.08 mbps is ranked 89th even after slipping three positions, Myanmar has a speed of 11.72 mbps, Nepal has 10.97 mbps and Sri Lanka has 9.32 mbps.
      The Ookla report clarified that while mobile speeds increased modestly, fixed broadband speeds increased dramatically. "Average fixed broadband download speed in January was 12.12 Mbps. As of November, India's broadband speed is at 18.82 Mbps, a close to 50 per cent jump," the report added.
      When it comes to broadband speed, Singapore leads the way with 153.85 mbps, followed by Iceland with 147.51 mbps, Hong Kong with 133.94 mbps, South Korea with 127.45 mbps and Romania on the fifth spot with 104.46 mbps.  China is ranked 23rd with 61.24 mbps, Sri Lanka has 19.26 mbps, Bangladesh has 16.14 mbps, Nepal has 14.05 mbps and Pakistan on the 126th spot with 6.13 mbps.
      The report also mentioned that with 2018 around the corner, India stands a good chance of renewing the development of Indian internet.

    General Awareness

    NGOs in India’s Development Process

    • Introduction

      In a democratic system, the role of the state is primary and most crucial in formulating and implementing the social and economic development programmes. However, in the contemporary society, the problems that people have been facing especially the poor are much more complex. This is especially true in a country like India where a large number of vulnerable sections are experiencing inequalities at all the levels.

      Development does not only mean economic development but also includes promoting social equality, gender equality, improving quality of life etc., It is not possible for government alone to effectively undertaking such complex development activities. So, there is essentiality of other groups or organizations to support the government on various fronts. This essentiality paved way for the emergence of civil society.Non-Governmnt organizations (NGOs) being a major arm of civil society thus have a crucial role in the country’s development process.

      Non-Government organizations (NGOs) are the groups or institutions or organizations that are not reducible to the administrative grasp and work on ‘non-profit’ basis with the principles like social equality, altruism and human development as their foundations. In India at present there are nearly 25,000 NGOs spread across various parts of the country.


      Social service is associated with India since ancient times. It is said that even Mahatma Gandhi after attaining independence wanted Indian National congress to be transformed into a Public service organization. Although such proposal was rejected, later many of staunch Gandhi followers did setup large number of voluntary orgs across various parts of the country to carry of the constructive works on Gandhian principles. However, the real and identified registration and formation of NGOs emerged in India from early 1970s. Immediately after their formal inception, NGOS received grater thrust form the Government in more than one ways.

      The GOI during the sixth Five year plan with its famous”GARIBI HATAO” slogan did recognize the importance of NGOs in the development process of India. In the seventh FYP, it gave a task of developing “self-reliance communities” to NGOs for promoting rural development. Later in the eighth FYP, government sought to promote nationwide network of NGOs. In its ninth FYP, it envisaged the primary role of in promoting PPPS in the country. The tenth FYP envisaged the need and importance of NGOS in developing agricultural sector by promoting awareness among the farmers about various modern farm techniques and government initiatives for their benefit. Moreover, government has also been promoting the development of NGOs through financial aid and assistance programmes.

      NGOs with the support given by the government has been accelerating its development activities by taking up specific issues like Poverty alleviation, child rights, caste stigma and discriminations, women rights, child labor, rural development, water and sanitation, environmental issues etc., In the last two decades the role of NGOs have become proactive in the social sector development-education, health etc.,NGOs have played a crucial role in sending the school dropouts back to the school especially in rural areas thus upholding the Right to education. And also the heath sector development programmes like Leprosy eradication programme and programs on eliminating TB, malaria and improving water and sanitation facilities by NGOs have met with huge success.

      The most highlighted success of NGOs could be seen in their achievement in influencing government to bring out various development-oriented policies and laws. Few of such laws and policies include: Right to Information, Integrated child development scheme(ICDS), Integrated child protection scheme(ICPS), MNREGA, Juvenile justice, Nirmal gram initiative, Rastriya swathya bhima yogna(RSBY), Various policies on women development, forest and environment development, anti-trafficking, people with disability etc.,

      NGOs and Controversies

      NGOs undoubtedly have been playing proactive role in protecting the interests of the poor and destitute and are also essential for upholding the democratic values of the country. However, many NGOs in India have come under the red scanner and their functioning have to be seen with suspicion. This is majorly because of loss in credibility and lack of accountability with NGOs in India. Although this is not true with all the NGOs but it is certainly true that the red spot is on many NGOs across various regions in the country.

      The recent report of Intelligence bureau (IB) stated that-the working of few NGOs in the name of protests against the government activities have become detrimental to the nation development. It also mentioned that the protests of ‘foreign funding NGOs’ led to loss of 2-3% of country’s GDP. The report has brought the discussions and debates about NGOs accountability into fore. It is true that NGOs must raise voice to protect the rights of people and protest but it is also equally important for them to provide the alternatives for the government to ensure development. Mere protests and stalling development activities would not prove effective and hurt the nation building. So, it is essential for NGOs to ensure effective policy research with ‘think-tank’ way of functioning and provide alternative solutions to the government since after all the emergence of NGOs linked to the requirement of best effective alternative approaches.

      It is well known fact that several NGOs obtaining funds from the foreign sources for their activities. It is also true that these NGOs played crucial part in protests against setting up coal and thermal project plants and Konndankulam nuclear project which led to power shortages in the respective states. In the wake of IB report, there are few arguments from different quarters to block the option of availing foreign funds. But in a country like India where income source is low and high difficulties associated in raising funds which are primary for NGOs to fulfill their minimum requirements it is definitely not acceptable to stop the foreign funds. Instead of blocking the foreign funds it is necessary for government to ensure further transparency in categorizing the NGOs based on their funds sources. It would also prove effective if government tightens the scrutiny procedures through foreign contribution (regulation) act, 2010. And also it is necessary that NGOs to ensure transparency in their governance frame work and board functioning.

      In fine, the NGOs working with enhanced accountability, by providing alternative solutions to the development, in collaboration with the government and market which is the need of the hour would further strengthen the development process in India.

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