Current Affairs Current Affairs - 13 September 2017 - Vikalp Education

Online Vikalp, Current Affairs, Current Awareness, General Awareness, Aptitude Classes, Daily News, General Knowledge, General Awareness For All Competitive Exam, current affairs quiz,current affairs in india, current affairs about sports, current affairs and gk, current affairs about india, current affairs daily quiz, current affairs dairy, current affairs education, Top News, Breaking News, Latest News

Current Affairs - 13 September 2017

General Affairs 

Every Voter Has A Right To Abstain, Election Commission Tells Supreme Court On NOTA In Rajya Sabha Polls
  • A last-minute petition by the Congress against NOTA, or the None of The Above option at Rajya Sabha elections in Gujarat was an abuse of court process, the Election Commission told the Supreme Court in an affidavit  The election body said the law recognises that voters are free to abstain, and NOTA reflected this right.

    The election body said NOTA was introduced in direct and indirect elections after the top court's ruling in 2013 that had been implemented soon after. The first Rajya Sabha election where state legislators were given the NOTA option was in 2014 and 25 elections to the upper house have been held with NOTA.

    The Congress objection to NOTA had come in context of its prestige battle in Rajya Sabha elections in Gujarat last month. Congress president Sonia Gandhi's aide Ahmed Patel, 67,was seeking another term from the state and the BJP was  determined to make the Congress to sweat for this one seat.

    Mr Patel did scrape through with 44 votes eventually after two Congress rebel votes were cancelled because they had showed their ballot papers to a BJP leader. But the Congress strategist too later conceded he had never seen "such a tense and bitter election battle".

    The Congress and the BJP had both opposed NOTA, which allows a voter to reject all candidates, saying it is against the ethos of indirect elections. But it was the Congress that had approached the Supreme Court, arguing that "there is no constitutional provision for NOTA in the Rajya Sabha polls and no order from the Election Commission".

    The top court had then refused to put on hold the right of lawmakers to reject all candidates but asked the Election Commission to respond to the points made the Congress.

    In Rajya Sabha polls, legislators have to show their ballot paper to an authorised party agent before putting it in ballot box. "The use of NOTA in an indirect election is contrary to the mandate of the Constitution, the Representation of the People Act and election rules," the Congress insisted.

Nitish Kumar Agrees With Another PM Modi Proposal
  • Nitish Kumar is showing no burnout when it comes to agreeing with Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Yesterday, the Bihar Chief Minister said the PM is correct to claim that his shock demonetisation move animated the war against black money. Today, Mr Kumar said the Prime Minister's pushing of simultaneous state and general elections is sagacious.

    At a meeting with Chief Ministers of different states in April this year, the PM said that holding general and state elections at one go would be much cheaper and stop the disruption of governance. He circulated that theory again last month, urging his party to initiate a nationwide debate on the proposal.

    Till a few months ago, Mr Kumar and his Janata Dal United or JDU said any move to change the election schedule would need parliament's approval. But today, a senior JDU leader, Vashishta Narayan Singh, said the party has no objections to simultaneous voting, not least because it will save the country a lot of money.

    As with other substantive issues, Mr Kumar privately agreed with the PM's opinion, but publicly did not endorse it till they ended years of deep enmity in July to reignite the alliance between their parties, forming a new joint government to run Bihar.

    The Bihar Chief Minister has long held that the current staggered timetable for elections holds up the announcement and implementation of key reforms and schemes not least because parties, especially national ones, are constantly focused on the next state election, and important bureaucrats and officers are deputed to other states as observers for elections.

    Yesterday, the Chief Minister, who had backed the PM's ban on high-denomination notesright from the beginning, said that just because 99 per cent of the banned currency has been returned to banks, it doesn't mean that the aim of destroying black money has been defeated, as all experts have declared. Instead, the Chief Minister said, demonetisation will change people's mindset and clear the way for the next phase of fighting corruption by identifying proxy-owned or benami property.

China Can't Share Brahmaputra Data But Open To Resume Kailash Yatra Talks
  • Post the Doklam standoff, China today said it cannot share the hydrological data of the Brahmaputra river with India due to upgradation of the data collection station in Tibet but expressed readiness for talks to reopen the Nathu La pass in Sikkim for the Kailash-Mansarovar Yatra.

    China is expected to share hydrological data on the Sutlej and Brahmaputra rivers with India during the flood season of May 15 to June 15 under a bilateral expert-level mechanism established in 2006.

    "For long time we have conducted cooperation on the river data with the Indian side. But to upgrade and renovate the relevant station in the Chinese side, we do not have the conditions now to collect the relevant statistics of the river," Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Geng Shuang told media in Beijing.

    Asked when China will provide the data, the sharing of which was reportedly suspended due to the Doklam standoff, he said, "We will later consider that."

    Asked whether India has been informed that the hydrological data will not be shared, he said according to his information the Indian side is is aware of the relevant situation.

    On August 18, Indian External Affairs Ministry spokesman Raveesh Kumar had said there is an existing expert-level mechanism, established in 2006, and there are two MoUs under which China is expected to share hydrological data on rivers Sutlej and Brahmaputra with India during the flood season of May 15 to June 15.

    "For this year, we have not received hydrological data from the Chinese side," Mr Kumar had said.

    The data shared by upper riparian state, China, to lower riparian states, India and Bangladesh is essential every monsoon to allow anticipation of the flow of the water and take necessary measures to deal with flooding in India's northeastern states.

    China's stand citing technical reasons to not provide the hydrological data could pose major problems for India, especially to manage flood and drought seasons.

    China has been building major dams on the Brahmaputra river to generate hydel power. It has operationalised the Zangmu hydroelectric project in October, 2015 and three more dams are under construction.

    While the dams raised concerns of water shortages in India and Bangladesh which are lower riparian states of the Brahmaputra river, known as Yarlung Tsangpo in Tibet, China says its dams were made to generate power and was not aimed at storing water.

    Geng sounded positive on the reopening of the Kailash-Mansarovar pilgrimage route through Nathu La Pass in Sikkim, which was suspended over the Doklam standoff. Geng said China is ready to "keep communication" with the India on this issue.

    "For a long time China has made efforts against all odds to provide necessary convenience to the Indian pilgrims" he said.

    "According to the agreement reached between the two leaders and based on the fact that the western section of the India-China boundary has been recognised by the two sides, China opened the pass to the Indian pilgrims," he said, replying to a question about when China will open the route to the Indian pilgrims as the Doklam standoff has been resolved.

    The foreign ministry spokesman said the opening of the Nathu La pass was suspended as the Indian troops "illegally crossed the border leading to the tensions at the border".

    "So China stands ready to keep communication with the Indian side in regard to the opening of the pass and other issues relating to the pilgrims," he said.

    India and China last month ended a 73-day standoff in Dokalam area of the Sikkim sector that was triggered by China's move to build a road in the border area.

    The Sikkim route to Mansarovar was opened in 2015, enabling pilgrims to travel the 1500-km long route from Nathu La to Kailash by buses.

    The Yatra was being organised by External Affairs Ministry since 1981 through Lipu Pass in Himalays connecting the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand in India with the old trading town of Taklakot in Tibet.

Pakistan Not Showing Signs Of Improving Relations, Says Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh
  • Pakistan is not showing interest in improving relations with India, Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh today said, pointing to the regular violation of ceasefire by the neighbour in Jammu and Kashmir.

    "Pakistan is regularly resorting to ceasefire violations and because of this, I feel Pakistan is not showing interest in improving relations with India," Mr Singh said during a press conference in Jammu.

    The minister is on a four-day visit to Jammu and Kashmir since September 9.

    "Our Army and BSF troops are giving a befitting reply. We will create such conditions that they (Pakistan) will be forced to stop ceasefire violation today or tomorrow," the minister said.

    Apart from holding security review meetings, Mr Singh met delegations from various sections in the Srinagar summer capital before beginning his visit to Jammu region, where he continued with his interactions.

    Mr Singh was also briefed about the latest equipment being inducted by the BSF.

    "Since 2014, Pakistan has resorted to over 400 ceasefire violations every year. This has to be stopped by Pakistan," the minister said.

    He was accompanied by Union Minister Jitendra Singh and Deputy Chief Minister Nirmal Singh.

    The Union home minister reached out to the the people who were living along the Line of Control but were forced to shun their homes and hearths and take shelter in camps in Noushera sector of Rajouri district for over four months.

    The Home Minister said that the country is proud of the border dwellers and that they are a "strategic asset" for India.

    "If there is any biggest strategic asset of India, it is the Indian citizens living along the borders of the country.

    It is the biggest strategic asset of India. If we get strategic successes, it is because of your contribution," he said.

    The Union minister said the Centre has decided to set up an expert group to study the problems and challenges of the people living along the border.

    "This expert group or study group will give its opinion and we will act on that," he said.

    The minister said 60 bunkers have been built and a decision has been taken by the government to construct more bunkers.

    The minister also hailed the troops of the Army and the BSF, and said the country is proud of them.

    He said the border residents are undeterred by the ceasefire violations by Pakistan.

    "They have also contributed to defending the borders. This contribution cannot be forgotten," he said.

Maneka Gandhi, Prakash Javadekar To Meet Over Child Abuse In Schools
  • Taking note of child abuse incidents in schools, Child Development Minister Maneka Gandhi and Human Resource Development Minister Prakash Javadekar will meet on Wednesday to review the situation, officials said on Tuesday.

    Officials said that Maneka Gandhi called and requested Mr Javadekar to consider suggestions like having women employees as the support staff and bus drivers and conductors in the schools.

    She also suggested screening of educational films on child sexual abuse in schools, popularising POCSO e-Box and Childline 1098 through NCERT publications, and having strict norms for employing support staff.

    Ms Gandhi has also written to Prakash Javadekar with suggestions.

    "The Ministry of Women and Child Development has already started its outreach campaign for protection of children through electronic as well as social media," an official statement said.

    Ms Gandhi said that the basic objective of the meeting is to develop a set of guidelines and protocols which schools must follow so that children remain protected from any kind of abuse or physical or mental harm.

    She said that parents, guardians and teachers should remain vigilant about children as well as their behaviour and any suspected situation should be reported immediately on Childline No.1098 and the POCSO e-Box. 

    The meeting will be co-chaired by the two ministers, and will be attended by officials from the two ministries, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights, CBSE, NCERT and the Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan.

Business Affairs

Centre seeks to double tax-free gratuity limit to Rs 20 lakh. Here's what gratuity means and how it is calculated
  • The government is all set to introduce an amendment bill to increase the limit of tax-free gratuity for formal sector employees to Rs 20 lakh. The Union Cabinet agreed to table the Payment of Gratuity (Amendment) Bill, 2017 in Parliament in its meeting today.

    "The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi has given its approval to introduction of the Payment of Gratuity (Amendment) Bill, 2017, in Parliament," a government statement said.

    The Union Government is of the view that the entitlement of gratuity should be revised for employees who are covered under the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972, on account of inflation and increase in salaries of employees working in the private sector. The key motive behind this Act is to ensure social security of salaried employees after retirement, irrespective of the fact whether it is because of rules of superannuation, or physical disablement or impairment of vital parts of the body.

    This amendment bill will benefit employees working in the private sector, as well as staff members of public undertakings and autonomous organisations under the government who are not covered under Central Civil Services (Pension) Rules. As of now according to the Act, they are entitled to tax-free gratuity up to Rs 10 lakh. The amendment will bring their gratuity at par with central government employees, which is Rs 20 lakh.

    The limit of tax-free gratuity for central government employees under Central Civil Services (Pension) Rules, 1972 was increased to Rs 20 lakh from Rs 10 lakh last year on recommendations of the 7th Pay Commission. The changes were notified on July 25, 2016 and were put into effect from January 01, 2016. Along with it, the government began the process to amend the Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972.

    Therefore, the Gratuity Act serves as a key social security legislation to wage earners in industries, factories and establishments.

    What and how of Gratuity
    • Gratuity is a sum of money an employee receives from his or her employee in exchange of services rendered to the organisation. Gratuity, however, is paid only to employees who have worked for five years or more in a company.
    • The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 applies to organisations with a workforce of ten or more employees.
    • Gratuity is paid to employees under private sector, public undertakings and autonomous institutions under government but not covered under Central Civil Services (Pension) Rules, 1972. The objective is to ensure social security of salaried employees after retirement, irrespective of the reason for retiring.
    • The formula presently used to calculate gratuity incorporates the number of years the employee has worked with the establishment and the last basic salary he or she has withdrawn along with the DA. The formula is (number of years of service)x(last basic pay + dearness allowance)x15/26.
    • The employer can choose to pay more than the amount that is calculated with the above formula as gratuity. Employers may even pay gratuity out of their own pockets or take a group gratuity plan with an insurance provider.

7th Pay Commission: Modi Cabinet approves additional 1% DA to central govt employees
  • The Union Cabinet agreed to increase dearness allowance (DA) to central government employees and dearness relief (DR) to pensioners by one per cent. The hike in allowance will be effective from July 1, 2017.
    The hike in allowances will put an additional burden of Rs 3068.26 crore every year on the nation's treasury. Even during the course of the current financial year, the exchequer will have to shell out Rs 2045.50 crore for implementing the increase in dearness allowance and relief between July 2017 and February 2018.
    In a meeting chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the Cabinet decided today to increase DA by one per cent to compensate rise in prices. Central government employees and pensioners receive dearness allowance and dearness relief, respectively, at a rate of four per cent of their basic pay or pension. This increase is in accordance with the accepted formula, which is based on the recommendations of the 7th Central Pay Commission.
    The Cabinet approved the reformed allowance structure recommended by the 7th Central Pay Commision back in June this year. Disbursing allowances according to the rates resulted in a steep rise in House Rent Allowance, along with rise in tough location allowance, conveyance allowance, and travelling allowance among others. Several allowances were also merged or scrapped.
    The Cabinet also gave its nod for hiving off mobile tower assets of Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) into a separate company. BSNL owns over 66,000 mobile towers out of 4,42,000 mobile towers presently operational in India. The resultant entity, however, will be entirely owned by BSNL.
    This move allows BSNL to monetise the telecom towers at its disposal with the formation of a separate subsidiary company. "An independent, dedicated tower company of BSNL with a focused approach will lead to increasing of external tenancies and consequentially higher revenue for the new company, "read a statement by the Union Cabinet.

Retail inflation jumps to five-month high of 3.36 % in August; manufacturing drags down IIP growth to 1.2% in July
  • Retail inflation rose to a five-month high of 3.36 per cent in August due to costlier vegetables and fruits.
    The consumer price index (CPI) based inflation stood at 2.36 per cent in the previous month.
    The August inflation number is the highest since March 2017, when it was recorded at 3.89 per cent.
    Overall food inflation in August also moved up, reversing the deflationary trend, to 1.52 per cent, government data showed today.
    Daily consumables like fruits and vegetables turned costlier during the month with inflation print coming at 5.29 per cent and 6.16 per cent, respectively as against 2.83 per cent and (-)3.57 per cent in July, according to the data released by the Central Statistics Office (CSO).
    Likewise, prepared meals, snacks and sweets as a category turned dearer with the rate of price rise at 1.96 per cent from 0.43 per cent in July.
    Also, transport and communication means were costlier during the month with inflation rising to 3.71 per cent from 1.76 per cent in July.
    However, items such as cereals and products, meat and fish, oils and fats became cheaper at inflation prints at 3.87 per cent, 2.94 per cent and 1.03 per cent, respectively.
    Meanwhile, industrial production grew a meagre 1.2 per cent in July from 4.5 per cent a year ago, bearing the brunt of a dismal show of the manufacturing sector -- especially that of capital goods -- putting pressure on RBI to lower rates further.
    Factory output measured in terms of index of industrial production had declined by 0.2 per cent in June, according to revised estimates released by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) today.
    During April-July, IIP grew by 1.7 per cent, down from 6.5 per cent in the same period last year.
    Growth of the manufacturing sector, which makes up 77.6 per cent of the index, decelerated sharply to 0.1 per cent in July compared to 5.3 per cent in the same period of 2016.
    Output of capital goods -- a proxy for infrastructure investments in the country -- contracted 1 per cent in July as against a growth of 8.8 per cent in the year-ago period.
    Consumer durable goods met with similar fate, with production declining 1.3 per cent as against a nominal growth of 0.2 per cent a year earlier.
    However, electricity generation stood out as it posted a growth of 6.5 per cent in July, up from 2.1 per cent in July 2016. Mining output too expanded by 4.8 per cent, as against 0.9 per cent in the year-ago month.
    In terms of use-based classification, growth rates in July 2017 over the same month last year stood at 2.3 per cent for primary goods, (-)1.8 per cent for intermediate goods and 3.7 per cent for infrastructure and construction goods.
    Consumer non-durables have recorded a growth of 3.4 per cent.
    A total of eight out of 23 industry groups in the manufacturing sector grew in July 2017 compared to the corresponding month last year.

Automobile segment witnesses 13.5 per cent growth in August
  • Growth in total automobile sales, which include commercial vehicles, passenger vehicles, two and three wheelers, inched 1.5 percentage points from the month of July to 13.5 per cent in August, year-on-year (y-o-y).
    Since the beginning of the year, overall automobile sales have witnessed a double-digit growth in the past two months. However, unlike July, the month of August has observed higher sales in all segments, on a y-o-y basis.
    According to report by CARE Ratings, "The sales numbers in August 2017 are clearly positive, signalling that the automobile industry is almost out of the difficult times."
    Total passenger vehicle sales increased by 5.1 per cent at 3, 51,089 units. Sales of commercial vehicles grew by 14.9 per cent at 72,602 units.  "Passenger vehicle sales recorded positive growth, but the growth was restricted due to the uncertainty revolving around the cess rate. For the commercial vehicles segment, infrastructure development and construction activity have fuelled growth during the month," adds the report. Interest rates have been declining making available easy access to financing. These reasons have spiked the demand in the market.
    The three-wheeler sale which has been showcasing a dismal show over the past 17 months has registered a growth of 7.8 per cent in August, on a y-o-y basis.  On the other hand, total sales of two wheelers rose by 15.2 per cent at 2,127,567 units.
    April-August period has been quite positive for the auto manufacturers. "Players started off with strong sales while the growth was restricted by the GST implementation and ambiguity with the cess rate to be charged to the different categories of passenger vehicles," highlights the report.
    The demand for automobiles usually starts picking up in Q2 and gains momentum in Q3 during the festival season. Also, demand remains strong in February and March. In FY18, CARE Ratings expects automobiles to witness pickup in demand post the initial interruptions caused by GST implementation and marginal price adjustments.

    Sensex rises 276 points, Nifty records second-highest close on positive global cues
    • The Sensex and Nifty closed higher for the second consecutive day this week amid global stocks rising on easing of North Korea crisis and weakening of Hurricane Irma.
      While the Sensex closed 276 points or 0.87 percent higher to 32,158 level, Nifty rose 87 points or 0.87 percent to 10,093.05 points. Today is the second best close for Nifty after August 2 when the index closed at 10,115 level.
      Tata Motors (up 3.14 percent), Tata Steel (up 3.30 percent) were among the major market movers. Tata Steel was the top gainer on the 30-stock Sensex after the firm announced that it has concluded a new agreement under which its UK business stands separated from the 15-billion pound British Steel Pension Scheme (BSPS).  
      Sun Pharma (3.17 percent), Tata Motors and Hindustan Unilever (2.26 percent) were among the top gainers on the Sensex.
      Private sector lender IndusInd Bank lost nearly half of its yesterday's gains to close 2.74 percent or 49 points lower at 1741.65 level on the BSE. Bharat Financial Inclusion too closed 0.03 percent lower at 967 level on the BSE. It hit an intra-day low of 954.15 points on profit-booking but eventually recovered losses to close marginally lower. On Monday, both stocks were the major market movers on news that IndusInd Bank and Bharat Financial have entered into exclusive talks for a potential strategic combination.
      All Bank Nifty stocks except IndusInd Bank closed in the green.
      Among sectoral indices, BSE healthcare, auto, oil and gas gained 220 points,  253 points and 250 points, respectively.
      Market breadth was positive with 1455 stocks closing higher against 1146 stocks falling on the BSE.
      France's CAC 40 edged up 0.3 percent to 5,191.40 in early trading, while Germany's DAX rose 0.4 percent to 12,521.93. Britain's FTSE 100 was also up, gaining 0.2 percent to 7,428.48. U.S. shares were set to drift higher, with Dow futures adding 0.2 percent to 22,052 and S&P 500 futures gaining 0.1 percent to 2,487.60.
      ASIA'S DAY: Japan's benchmark Nikkei 225 gained 1.2 percent to finish at 19,776.62, as a weaker yen helped boost sentiment. Australia's S&P/ASX 200 was up 0.6 percent at 5,746.40, while South Korea's Kospi edged up 0.3 percent to 2,365.47. Hong Kong's Hang Seng inched down but was little changed at 27,944.98, while the Shanghai Composite gained nearly 0.1 percent to 3,379.49.
      On Wall Street on Monday, U.S. S&P 500 Index surged over 1 percent to a record high close of 2,488 while MSCI's broadest gauge of the world's stock markets covering 47 markets also hit a new record high, having made its biggest gains in about two months.

    General Awareness

    Large Dams in India

    • India has over 1200 all-sized Dams and Reservoirs that are meant for several purposes including Hydro Electricity Generation, Irrigation. We are enlisting some of the large Dams in India to be remembered by candidates.
      Some Facts about dams in India -
      • Tehri Dam is By far India's Biggest in Terms of Height - 260.5 Metres, followed by Lakhwar Dam (204 Metres).
      • By Length, Ukai Dam si Largest with length 4927 Metres, followed by Nagarjuna Sagar Dam (4865 Metres).
      • Bandardhara Dam is India's First Dam, created in 1926 (Also called Wilson Dam).

      DamCompletion YearRiverState
      Tehri Dam2005BhagirathiUttarakhand
      Lakhwar DamUnder ConstructionYamunaUttarakhand
      Idukki Arch Dam1974PeriyarKerala
      Bhakra Dam1963SatlujHimachal Pradesh
      Pakal Dul DamUnder ConstructionMarusudarJammu & Kashmir
      Sardar Sarover Gujarat DamUnder ConstructionNarmadaGujarat
      Srisailam Dam1984KrishnaTelangana
      Ranjit Sagar Dam1999RaviPunjab
      Baglihar Dam2009ChenabJammu & Kashmir
      Chemera I Dam1994RaviHimachal Pradesh
      Cheruthoni Dam1976CheruthoniKerala
      Pong Dam1974BeasHimachal Pradesh
      Jamrani Dam1990GolaUttarakhand
      Subansiri Dam2014SubansiriArunachal Pradesh
      Ramganga Dam1974RamgangaUttarakhand
      Nagarjuna Sagar Dam1974KrishnaTelangana
      Kakki Dam1966KakkiKerala
      Nagi Dam1958NagiBihar
      Salal Dam1986ChenabJammu & Kashmir
      Sholayar Dam1971SholayarTamil Nadu
      Koyna Dam1964KoynaMaharashtra
      Idamalayar Dam1985IdamalayarKerala
      Supa Dam1987Kali NadiKarnataka
      Karjan Dam1987KarjanGujarat
      Kulamavu Dam1977KilivillithodeKerala
      Koteshwar DamUnder ConstructionBhagirathiUttarakhand
      Doyang Hep DamUnder ContructionDoyangNagaland
      Rihand Dam1962RihandUttar Pradesh
      Indira Sagar Dam2006NarmadaMadhya Pradesh
      Warna Dam2000VarnaMaharashtra
      Bhatsa Dam1983Bhatsa and ChornaMaharashtra
      Pillur Dam1967BhavaniTamil Nadu
      Upper Kodayar Dam1972Kodayar
      Jakham Main Dam1986Jakham (Mahi)Rajasthan
      Lower Ghatghar Dam2007Maharashtra
      Thenmala Dam1986KalladaKerala
      Mattupetty Dam1953PalarKerala
      Tungabhadra Dam1953TungabhadraKarnataka
      Parbati DamUnder ConstructionParbatiHimachal Pradesh
      Chakra Dam1985ChakraKarnataka
      Bandardhara Dam1926ParavaraMaharashtra
      Lower Vaitarna Dam1954VaitarnaMaharashtra
      Ukai Dam1972TapiGujarat
      Upper Aliyar Dam1971AliyarTamilnadu
      Aruna DamUnder ConsructionArunaMaharashtra
      Upper Bhavani Dam1965BhavaniTamilnadu
      Podagada Dam1996PodagadaOdisha

      No comments:

      Featured post

      Current Affairs - 16 December 2018

      General Affairs   Cyclone Phethai Gathers Over Bay Of Bengal, May Hit Andhra On Monday ...

      Copyright © 2016. Vikalp Education