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Current Affairs - 04 September 2017

General Affairs 

Cabinet rejig in numbers: How PM Narendra Modi built his new team with caste politicians, ex-babus

  • Nine new Union ministers took oath today at the Rashtrapati Bhavan. The swearing-in ceremony was attended by most of the senior members of the Council of Ministers including Prime Minister Narendra Modi. BJP president Amit Shah was also present during oath taking. 
    Modi-Shah team worked hard to get the balance right in the Cabinet with an eye on the next Lok Sabha elections - less than two years from now. Caste combination has been taken care of in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Poll-bound state of Karnataka has got a hardcore RSS member as Union minister. Besides, retired bureaucrats have also been inducted to get non-political work of governance done.
    The new team has come up as a result of an interesting number pattern, which can be explained as 3,4,5,6-formula.
    It was the third Cabinet reshuffle by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in as many years. The Modi government was sworn-in in May 2015. Prime Minister Modi reshuffled his Cabinet in November that year within six months of forming the government. Suresh Prabhu and Manohar Parrikar were inducted in the Cabinet.
    The second Cabinet reshuffle took place in July last year when 19 new ministers were included in the Union Council of Ministers. PM Modi had dropped five ministers of states while elevating Prakash Javadekar to cabinet rank.
    There was another three - the number of vacancies in the Cabinet before reshuffle. Manohar Parrikar had resigned in March to take over as the Chief Minister of Goa. Arun Jaitley has since been taking care of Parrikar's defence portfolio.
    The then Environment and Forest Minister Anil Dave passed away in May this year. Dave's portfolio passed on to Science and Technology Minister Harsh Vardhan. In July, M Venkaiah Naidu resigned to contest the vice-presidential election. His portfolios were distributed among Narendra Singh Tomar and Smriti Irani.
    Four is the number of former bureaucrats who took oath today as the Union ministers. They are Raj Kumar Singh, Hardeep Puri, Alphons Kannanthanam and Satyapal Singh.
    Former Union home secretary and Lok Sabha MP from Bihar RK Singh had shot to fame during his bureaucratic career when he arrested veteran BJP leader LK Advani in 1990 at Samastipur in Bihar stopping his Rath Yatra. Hardeep Puri has had an illustrious career as diplomat. He was the permanent representative at the United Nations for several years. Hardeep Puri is also considered close to LK Advani and, in a sense, balances out RK Singh's presence in the Modi cabinet.
    Alphons Kannanthanam and Satyapal Singh have vast administrative experience. Alphons Kannanthanam is known as the Demolition Man of the DDA. He has expertise in town planning and considered a good hand in infrastructure development.
    Satyapal Singh is known for his drive against the underworld as the Mumbai police commissioner. His presence in the cabinet will also help the BJP counter the exit of Sanjiv Baliyan, the Jat leader from western Uttar Pradesh.
    Incidentally, four ministers of state - Dharmendra Pradhan, Piyush Goyal, Nirmala Sitharamanand Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi - have been elevated to cabinet rank.
    Five of the nine new ministers found their way into the cabinet due to caste and political considerations. They are Shiv Pratap Shukla, Ashwani Kumar Choubey, Virendra Kumar, Gajendra Singh Shekhawat and Anant Hegde.
    Shiv Pratap Shukla is a known rival of UP Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath. Both have strong Gorakhpur connection. Shukla's entry into the Cabinet also compensates the loss of Mahendra Nath Pandey as one Brahmin from UP replaces another in the Modi government.
    Ashwani Kumar Choubey is another Brahmin from neighbouring Bihar. There was no Brahmin minister from Bihar in the Union Council of Minister. As a Rajput minister RK Singh from Bihar replaced Rajiv Pratap Rudy, Choubey's entry in the Cabinet looks at striking the right caste balance in Bihar BJP.
    Virendra Kumar is a Dalit leader fromTikamgarh in the Budelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh. He is a six-time Lok Sabha MP. Virendra Kumar's induction in the cabinet comes roughly a month after Samptiya Uikey - a tribal leader from Madhya Pradesh - was made Rajya Sabha member by the BJP. The Dalit-tribal combination may help the BJP in Madhya Pradesh and Lok Sabha elections later.
    Gajendra Singh Shekhawat is known as affable Rajpur leader in Rajasthan. He is a Lok Sabha MP from Jodhpur. Shekhawat's induction by PM Narendra Modi is an attempt to give Rajasthan more representation at the Centre. There has been sentiment in the poll-bound state that Rajasthan is under-represented in the Modi government despite voting overwhelmingly in BJP's favour in the 2014-Lok Sabha elections.
    Karnataka is heading to assembly polls and BJP hopes to cash in on the anti-incumbency against Siddaramaiah government of Congress. Ananth Hegde is a strong RSS leader. He is a Lok Sabha MP from Uttara Kannada. Anant Hegde has the reputation of a hardliner Hindutva leader.
    And, finally the number six. This is the number of ministers who were dropped from Narendra Modi cabinet. It is speculated that they were dropped on the basis of their under-performance. They are Kalraj Mishra, Rajiv Pratap Rudy, Bandaru Dattatreya, Faggan Singh Kulaste, Sanjiv Balyan and Mahendra Nath Pandey.
    Modi and Shah are said to have relied on an excel sheet, prepared by a team of experts, who appraised performances of all the ministers. The excel sheet had a remarks column. Those ministers getting an "N" for negative were dropped from the Cabinet.
    However, Kalraj Mishra is said to have been dropped on account of age - he is over 75 years now, and Mahendra Nath Pandey was set to go after he was made the UP BJP chief recently.

Uma Bharti failed to capitalise on a good opportunity to clean up Ganga, say experts
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Thursday interacted with a group of over 80 Additional Secretaries and Joint Secretaries and asked them to work with clear objectives towards creating a New India by 2022.

    Highlighting the current positive "global environment in favour of India", the Prime Minister asked officers to work with "clear objectives towards creating a New India by 2022".

    PM Modi also urged them to work towards improving the processes of governance.

    "A human touch is essential for developing team spirit, which can deliver better collective results," PM Modi said.

    This was the fourth of five such interactions.

    During the meeting, officers also shared their experiences on subjects such as innovation and teamwork in governance, healthcare, health education, agriculture, water resources, e-governance, tax administration and GST, ease of doing business, grievance redressal, and child rights.

Government issues alert on Locky ransomware spreading through email; 2.3 lakh mails reported
  • The government today issued an alert on spread of new malware Locky Ransomware that can lock computers and demand ransom for unlocking them.
    "Alert regarding spam spreading Locky ransomware issued today by @IndianCERT...," Electronics and IT Additional Secretary Ajay Kumar tweeted.
    Ransomware is a malicious software and the Locky Ransomware is learnt to be demanding ransom of half bitcoin, which at present rate is equivalent to over Rs 1.5 lakh.
    The alert, issued on Cyber Swachhta Kendra, said it has been reported that a new wave of spam mails is circulating with common subject lines to spread variants of Locky Ransomware.
    "Reports indicate that over 23 million messages have been sent in this campaign. The messages contain common subjects like please print, documents, photo, Images, scans and pictures. However, the subject texts may change in targeted spear phishing campaigns," the alert, which described severity of the ransomware as "high", said.
    The system infected by Locky Ransomware is getting locked or encrypted with random numbers with "extension [dot] lukitus or [dot] diablo6", the alert stated. The instructions contain installation of "a TOR browser and visiting (dot) onion sites and demanding ransom of .5 Bitcoins", it added.
    To target users, spams showing links to fake dropbox websites is being used to spread Locky variants.
    "Users are advised to exercise caution while opening e-mails and organisations are advised to deploy anti-spam solutions and update spam block lists," the alert stated.
    May saw a series of cyber attacks involving ransomware WannaCry.
    "Among more than 100 countries that were hit by WannaCry (an advanced ransomware attack), India was the third-worst affected," an Assocham PWC report said.

Delhi LG Baijal bans Ghazipur landfill; waste to be diverted to temporary site
  • With Lieutenant Governor on Saturday imposing a ban on dumping of garbage at the Ghazipur landfill site, the waste meant for it would be diverted to a temporary site in Ranikhera near the Delhi-Haryana border, a civic official said.
    The decisions were taken a day after a portion of Ghazipur's trash mountain, which is 45-metres high as per the EDMC, caved in after torrential rain lashed Delhi - the heaviest in three years.
    A car, a scooter and two motorcycles were swept into a canal by the momentum of the hurtling slush. While Raj Kumari, 32, and Abhishek, 22, died, five persons were injured.
    Earlier, a decision was taken to divert the garbage to Bhalswa landfill site (about 50-metre high), but as it is already used way beyond its saturation, a new site was identified, he said.
    As per the EDMC officers, daily more than 600 trucks dumped garbage in this landfill site by Friday. Earlier, this site was commissioned with a maximum height of 20 metres but due to non-availability of land for new dumping ground MCD continues to dump garbage here.
    As per the DPCC record east Delhi produces more than 2,200 metric tonnes of garbage daily. The traffic on the street neighbouring the giant landfill at Ghazipur meanwhile has been temporarily stopped, said EDMC mayor Neema Bhagat.
    Bhagat also announced a compensation of Rs 1 lakh each to the kin of two persons who died.
    L-G Baijal on Saturday held a meeting to take stock of the situation, his office said. Garbage dumping at the Ghazipur site has been banned with immediate effect and the landfill site is likely to be cleared within two years, it said.
    Meanwhile, North Delhi mayor Preety Agarwal on Saturday said the Bhalswa landfill site poses a similar threat, and that she has directed authorities to take immediate and necessary steps to avoid a repeat of the Ghazipur incident.
    AAP spokesperson Dilip Pandey said the Delhi Development Authority and MCD should work together to finalise a new garbage dumping site in the city at the earliest.
    During her visit, Bhagat said they got land for new landfill site at Ghonda Gujran but due to some environmental issues they are still waiting for the NGT's nod.
    As per the corporation, the new 150 acre land will be made a fully scintific landfill site where EDMC can dump garbage for years. EDMC also plans to establish a waste to energy plant. EDMC will hold a meeting for this new landfill site on September 4.

National Blindness Survey: 62 to 65 per cent of those surveyed randomly had cataracts
  • In a bid to eliminate blindness from India, the Union health ministry conducted a National Blindness Survey (2015-2018) in collaboration with the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS).
    But what came out in the survey is striking and alarming as nearly "62 to 65 per cent of those surveyed randomly were found to be having cataract".
    According to a senior AIIMS doctor, initial findings of the survey has revealed about 62 per cent to 65 percent cases of cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the population and percent of glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy would also be revealed.
    Cataracts are considered to be the most common cause of blindness in India, and can only be treated by surgery.
    This is the first ever survey done on a sample of 90,000 using the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB)-6 methodology.
    RAAB is a scientific and rapid population-based survey of visual impairment and eye care services among people aged 50 years and above, to estimate the prevalence and causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment in the population.
    Speaking to MAIL TODAY, Dr Atul Kumar, chief and professor of opthalmology at AIIMS's RP eye centre said: "The National Blindness Survey (2015-2018) is being conducted by our dedicated team and it has been completed in 23 districts till date. This survey is scheduled to be completed in all 30 districts by June 2018."
    "This survey will provide the most reliable representative current estimates of blindness and visuals impairment among aged 50 years and above population in India. The survey will also generate for the first time, the burden of DR and sight threatening DR in the population," said Dr Kumar.
    Prof JS Titiyal, an ophthalmologist and a leading cataract surgeon at AIIMS, said as many as 65 lakh cataract surgeries were performed in India every year, but the number of cases was still so high.
    "Nearly 65 per cent of NPCB budget is used only for cataract programmes. When we did a surgery in 1986- 89, the disease was about 80 per cent and in 2001 survey it reduced to 62 per cent."
    Prof Dr Praveen Vashist, head of community ophthalmology at RP eye centre told MAIL TODAY, "As of now, in India, the evidence for the burden of visual impairment is nearly about 5.4 crore and blindness is about 50 lakhs, which is 20 per cent of the global economic burden."

Business Affairs

Late payment fees waived for delayed GST returns filing
  • The government has waived late payment fees for delayed filing of GST returns and allowed businesses to correct errors in the initial form while submitting final returns by September 5.
    Businesses were required to file the maiden Goods and Services Tax (GST) returns for July and pay taxes by August 25 by filing GSTR 3B. The final returns for sales for July are to be filed by September 5 and returns for purchases by September 10.
    In a circular, the finance ministry said late fee for all taxpayers who could not file GSTR 3B for July has been waived, but not the interest on late payment of dues.
    As per the CGST and SGST Acts, an interest at the rate of 18 per cent will be levied for delayed payment of tax.
    "Since the payment was not made on or before the due date, the registered person shall be liable for payment of interest on delayed payment of tax starting from August 26, till the date of debit in the electronic cash and/or credit ledger, but will not be liable to pay any late fee," the CBEC said.
    The GST law provided for a nominal fee of Rs 100 per day on Central GST and an equivalent amount on State GST in case of late filing of returns and payment of taxes.
    The Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC) also provided for correction of erroneous details furnished in form GSTR-3B.
    Now, businesses who intend to make changes or amend the initial return (GSTR 3B) can do so at the time of filing final returns in forms GSTR-1 or GSTR-2, as the case may be.
    "This will get reflected in the revised output tax liability or eligible ITC (input tax credit), as the case may be, of the registered person. The details furnished in form GSTR-1 and GSTR-2 will be auto-populated and reflected in the returns in form GSTR-3 for that particular month," the CBEC said.
    In cases where the taxes paid as per the initial return filed in GSTR-3B is less than the amount due post reconciliation as per GSTR-1, the additional amount of tax can be paid by debiting the electronic cash or credit ledger.
    However, interest on delayed payment of return will be levied on the amount of tax that was due.
    Besides, the government has exempted businesses which have not filed GSTR-3B but will file final GST returns in GSTR-1, GSTR-2 and GSTR-3 from payment of late fees.
    Interest would, however, be levied for delayed payment of tax.
    Of the 59.57 lakh businesses that should file return for July, as many as 38.38 lakh taxpayers accounting for 64.42 per cent of the total businesses registered in July had filed their GST returns.
    Taxes worth Rs 92,283 crore were collected in July from just 64.42 per cent of the total taxpayer base.

Infosys promoters offer shares worth Rs 2,038 cr for buyback
  • Infosys promoters, including iconic co-founders N R Narayana Murthy and Nandan Nilekani, have offered to sell as many as 1.77 crore shares worth up to Rs 2,038 crore in the company's Rs 13,000 crore buyback offer.
    The promoters group which includes most of the founders and their families have expressed their intention to be part of the company's first buyback plan in its over three-decade history and have offered to tender a maximum of 1.77 crore shares.
    At a buyback price of Rs 1,150 per share, this could mean a windfall of Rs 2,038.94 crore for the promoter group, if all the shares tendered by them are accepted in the buyback offer.
    The founders and families classified as promoters group held 29.28 crore shares, or 12.75 per cent, in Infosys at the end of June 2017.
    The Bengaluru-based firm has been in the eye of a storm over the past few months, with founders and erstwhile board members clashing over allegations such as corporate governance lapses and irregularities in Infosys' USD 200-million Panaya acquisition.
    The spat often public culminated in the sudden resignation of the then CEO Vishal Sikka and exit of four board members, including Chairman R Seshasayee. They blamed Murthy's "misguided campaign" for Sikka's abrupt exit.
    Infosys, on August 24, named co-founder Nandan Nilekani as its new Non-Executive Chairman, bowing to the demands of co-founders and large institutional investors.
    However, the tensions between the two camps do not seem to be subsiding as Seshasayee launched another offensive last week against alleged "personal attacks" by Murthy.
    Infosys' buyback offer of up to 11.3 crore shares comes at an almost 25 per cent premium over Friday's closing price of Rs 920.10 a share. The record date is expected to be on or after October 25, 2017.
    The two key players in Infosys' changing narrative - Nilekani and Murthy along with families - have offered to tender maximum number of shares in the buyback.
    Nilekani, along with family, has offered to tender 58 lakh shares. Murthy, along with wife Sudha and two children, has put over 54 lakh shares on the block.
    S Gopalakrishnan and family have offered 22 lakh shares while in the case of K Dinesh, the number stands at 29 lakh.
    Sudha Gopalakrishnan, wife of S Gopalakrishnan, currently holds the largest share in individual capacity among promoters group members with 2.14 per cent shareholding.
    S D Shibulal will not participate in the buyback per se, but his wife and son have offered to sell over 14 lakh shares.

Finance Ministry writes to heads of PSU banks on consolidation
  • The finance ministry has written letters to all heads of PSU lenders informing them the government's decision to set up a ministerial panel to facilitate consolidation in the public banking space.
    A formal communication to CEOs of the banks from the Department of Financial Services last week has set in motion the consolidation process, a senior finance ministry official said.
    The government has been nudging the state-owned lenders to go for merger so that there can be fewer and stronger banks.
    The ministry wants banks to undertake an internal exercise for the best match and come up with the merger idea for the alternative mechanism (AM) set up for the purpose.
    The banks should analyse regional balance, geographical reach, IT compatibility, financial burden and human resource transition while firming up the merger proposal for the ministerial panel.
    Last month, the Union Cabinet decided to set up the alternative mechanism to oversee proposals for expeditious consolidation of public sector banks (PSBs) so as to create larger and stronger lenders.
    The proposals received from banks for in-principle approval to formulate schemes of amalgamation will be placed before the panel.
    To fast-track consolidation, the government has exempted mergers of nationalised banks from seeking fair trade watchdog CCI's approval.
    This exemption will be applicable for ten years and comes at a time when several experts and even policymakers have been talking about the need for consolidation in the banking sector, especially among state-owned banks.
    Asked how soon there could be consolidation, the official said: "It will be a few months as it is not a simple process."
    The merger of associate banks with SBI was slightly easy because they were subsidiary of the largest lender, the official added.
    Earlier this year, the government had approved the merger of SBI's five associate banks with the parent. In March, the Cabinet also approved the merger of Bharatiya Mahila Bank (BMB) with SBI.
    Following this, the number of public sector banks declined to 21 from 27. 

Issues in A320 neo plane engines a safety concern: Civil Aviation Minister
  • Technical snags faced by A320 neo aircraft operated by IndiGo and GoAir pose a "safety issue", Civil Aviation Minister Ashok Gajapathi Raju has said, hoping that they would be addressed and sorted out.
    At least eight A320 neo (new engine option) planes of IndiGo and two of GoAir have been grounded due to issues related to Pratt & Whitney engines that power these aircraft.
    "Obviously, any failure is a safety issue. So the operating procedure we changed... What is attractive is fuel efficiency. Fuel efficiency is one thing and risking life is another," Raju told in an interview.
    He was responding to a query on whether the engine issues were a safety concern.
    IndiGo, which has A320 neo planes in its fleet of 136 aircraft, was forced to cancel many flights due to engine woes.
    The aviation regulator DGCA asked the American engine maker to expedite the supply of spare engines to India.
    On whether there could be harsher action with respect to the engine issues, Raju said some of the planes have been grounded because of regulations, implying that existing norms are strict.
    "Why are they grounded that is because of the regulations. You don't want to take risks with life... Everybody is working on it (addressing the engine issues). As long as glitches don't massacre human beings it is okay. They will be addressed and sorted out," he noted.
    The Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) directed IndiGo and GoAir, in February, to conduct inspections of the P&W engines once they complete 1,000 hours of flying, instead of 1,500 hours as recommended by the engine maker.
    "What makes it (P&W engine) attractive?... We want to not risk lives and we also want fuel efficiency," Raju said.
    P&W claims their neo engines are 16 per cent more fuel efficient than the earlier variant A320 ceo (current engine option).
    Last month, IndiGo President Aditya Ghosh indicated that the airline could examine procuring aircraft with engines from a different manufacturer such as GE for 280 A320 neos it has ordered out of the total 430 planes.
    Last month, IndiGo had said it would also look at GE engines for its planned 280 A320 neo planes.
    The issues related to its A320 neos are due to two specific components of P&W engines wearing out faster than expected even as he assured it is not a safety issue, the airline's President Aditya Ghosh had said.
    "Our engine supplier P&W is implementing some design changes and we believe those changes will be implemented over the next 12-18 months... We are right now focused on getting enough spare engines from P&W so that the operational headaches go away," he had told shareholders.
    Apart from IndiGo and Go Air, Air India and Vistara have A320 neo aircraft but with engines from a different manufacturer.

    Drug Controller for a single window system of governance
    • G N Singh, the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) sees way ahead in having a "single window system of governance". Without elaborating much, he says an integrated and unified approach in handling affairs concerning health and medicines in the country, could go a long way in unlocking the huge potential of the industry.  
      His comments gain importance in the light of an old debate within the industry and government on the need to integrate ministries involved with health and pharmacy. For instance , there has been speculation for over a year now that the government may consider getting the department of pharmaceuticals and the National Pharmaceuticals Pricing Authority (NPPA) under the purview of the health ministry. Both are today under the ministry of chemicals and fertilisers. Whether this will happen at all and if it does, then when , is anybody's guess and pure speculation at the moment. The key point made by Singh is clearly around measures that can lead to single window for approvals and on major decision-making , which many in the industry, would welcome. He says it could go a long way for the sector as the "Indian pharma industry has the potential to be a growth engine for the Indian economy since India is already known as the pharmacy of the world." On specific policy measures and the operational turf for the ministry of health and family welfare, under which the DCGI comes, he did not wish to comment. "It is a policy level decision which has to be taken by the government and as a regulator , I have no comment to offer on the matter," is all he would say.  While again maintaining that a seamless integration in policy-making was best suited for the sector, he did point out that globally in most countries the regulation of medical products comes within the purview of the health ministry.
      The thinking on these matters is crucial at this juncture with the ongoing debate around the draft pharmaceutical policy. It has continued to be in the news. As is apparent now, it is not just the industry that is not in total agreement. Different voices are also being picked up from within government circles. It has already been reported in the media on the objections from the ministry of health and also some of the reservations that the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) has had with the draft. The extent to which all the views get raised and incorporated into the policy, need to be seen.

    General Awareness

    Assam for first time extends AFSPA orders on its own

    • On September 1,2017,Assam Government has extended term of Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), 1958 and declared entire state a Disturbed Area for six more months under section 3 of AFSPA act.This is for first time state government has extended AFSPA and Disturbed Area provision on its own. In the past, AFSPA provisions in state were always extended by the centre.
      A notification issued by the state home department said that while the law and order situation had continued to be a matter of concern due to violent incidents carried out by the underground groups, as many as 16 incidents involving these groups had taken place between May and July. These incidents had resulted in deaths of two civilians, one security personnel and four militants. The whole state was in unrest.
      Why AFSPA act in Assam ?Assam has remained a “disturbed area” under provisions of the AFSPA for nearly 27 years, with the Centre invoking the AFSPA on November 27, 1990, following incidents of violence by the ULFA(United Liberation Front of Asom),including the killing of industrialistsSurrendra Paul, younger brother of Lord Swarj Paul in May 1990.
      About AFSPA act : –
      The Background:
      The Armed Forces Special Powers Ordinance of 1942 was promulgated by the British on 15 August 1942 to suppress the Quit India Movement. Modelled on these lines, four ordinances were passed later it was invoked by the central government to deal with the internal security situation in the country in 1947 which aroused out of the Partition of India. Later it was incorporated into our constitution in 1958
      The act : –
      It empowers both state and central government to declare areas as ‘disturbed’ due to differences or disputes between members of different religious, racial, language or regional groups or castes or communities. The clauses in this act are
      1) Failure of the administration and the local police to tackle local issues
      2) Return of (central) security forces leads to return of miscreants/erosion of the “peace dividend”
      3) The scale of unrest or instability in the state is too large for local forces to handle
      The section (3) of the Act empowers governor of State/UT to issue an official notification in Gazette of India, following which Centre has authority to send in armed forces for civilian aid. Once declared ‘disturbed’, the region has to maintain status quo for a minimum of three months.
      If an area that is proclaimed as “disturbed”, an officer of the armed forces has powers to:
      • To arrest without a warrant anyone who has committed cognizable offences or is reasonably suspected of having done so and may use force if needed for the arrest.
      • To enter and search any premise in order to make such arrests, or to recover any person wrongfully restrained or any arms, ammunition or explosive substances and seize it.
      • Stop and search any vehicle or vessel reasonably suspected to be carrying such person or weapons.
      • Any person arrested and taken into custody under this Act shall be made present over to the officer in charge of the nearest police station with least possible delay, together with a report of the circumstances occasioning the arrest.
       AFSPA States : –
      At present, the AFSA has been enforced in 6 states
      1 Assam
      2 Nagaland
      3 Arunachal Pradesh (only the Tirap, Changlang and Longding districts plus 20-km belt bordering Assam)
      4) Manipur (except Imphal municipal area)
      5) Meghalaya (confined to  20-km belt bordering Assam)
      6) Jammu and Kashmir.

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