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Current Affairs - 4 March 2017

General Affairs 

Benami Act violators to face double whammy of legal action
  • The tax department on Friday warned that those who undertake Benami transactions would invite Rigorous Imprisonment (RI) of up to 7 years and such violators would also stand to be charged under the normal I-T Act.
    In advertisements issued in leading national dailies today, the Income Tax department stated: "Do not enter into benami transactions" as the Benami Property Transactions Act, 1988, is "now in action" from November 1, 2016.
    "Black money is a crime against humanity. We urge every conscientious citizen to help the government in eradicating it," it said.
    The department also spelled out some salient features of the new Act: "Benamidar (in whose name benami property is standing), beneficiary (who actually paid consideration) and persons who abet and induce benami transactions are prosecutable and may get RI up to 7 years besides being liable to pay fine up to 25 per cent of fair market value of benami property.
    "It added that "persons who furnish false information to authorities under the Benami Act are prosecutable and may be imprisoned up to 5 years besides being liable to pay fine up to 10 per cent of fair market value of benami property."
    The department made it clear that the benami property "may be attached and confiscated by the government" and that these actions are in "addition to actions under other laws such as Income Act, 1961.
    "The department, since the enactment of the law last year, has registered over 230 cases and attached assets worth Rs 55 crore nationwide, which also coincided with the action against black money post demonetisation.
    "A total of 235 cases and instances have been registered under the said Act by the department till mid-February this year.
    Show cause notices for attachment have been issued in 140 cases where benami assets worth Rs 200 crore are involved. "In 124 cases, benami assets worth more than Rs 55 crore have been provisionally attached till now," an I-T report, accessed by PTI, had said.
    The attached assets, officials had said, include deposits in bank accounts, agricultural and other land, flats and jewellery, among others.
    Post demonetisation on November 8 last year, the I-T department had carried out public advertisements and had warned people against depositing their unaccounted old currency in someone else's bank account.
    The I-T department is the nodal department to enforce the said Act in the country.
    The taxman had initiated a nationwide operation to identify suspect bank accounts where huge cash deposits have been made post November 8 when the government demonetised the Rs 500/1000 currency notes.

Train to Istanbul via New Delhi: India's response to China-Europe freight link
  • In January a freight train left Beijing to London, which became the 15th European city on the expanding map of China Railways.
    Now, India is preparing what could be its response to China-Europe freight corridor.
    India might soon showcase its prowess in freight movement across continents by running a container train from Dhaka in Bangladesh to Istanbul in Turkey.

    1. The container train will connect five countries- Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Iran and Turkey. The feasibility studies have been done under the aegis of United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP).
    2. The various conferences held as part of the UNESCAP study also included the rail networks in Nepal, Bhutan and Afghanistan, which may also be connected at a later stage.
    3. The trans-continental freight network is called ITI-DKD route. It will pass through Dhaka-Kolkata-Delhi-Amritsar-Lahore-Islamabad-Zahedan-Tehran-Istanbul. This route has the strategic advantage of connecting the Capitals of the countries.
    4. Nepal can be connected to ITI-DKD route via existing and operation rail route of Birgunj-Kolkata. Bhutan and Afghanistan do not have rail connectivity at present.
    5. Bhutan can be connected by road from Kolkata (existing route) and containers can be loaded in Afghanistan by connecting road routes with the railway network either at Quetta through Speenboldak-Chaman or at Islamabad through Torkham.
    6. To the end of moving closer to ultimately a running a container train across the indicated potential sectors, it is planned in 2017-18 to appraise in detail the Container Operations on the potential sectors: India-Bangladesh (Gede-Darshana interchange of railways), India-Pakistan (Attari-Wagah Border interchange), Pakistan-Iran (Zahedan interchange yard with break of gauge) and Iran-Turkey (Razi -Kapikrule with standard gauge).
    7. To move further in this direction and to appreciate and sort out the issues involved, a meeting of CEOs of Railways of the concerned countries will be held in March 2017 in Delhi.
    8. Moreover, a demonstration container train run between Bangladesh and India has been planned in the first quarter of 2017-18, the modalities for which have been agreed by senior Railway officials of both countries.
    9. The intermodal regional connectivity between the countries of South Asia, Middle East and Europe, if developed to its potential, can be a major boost to trade and economic development of the region by reducing significantly from the currently high tariff and non-tariff costs to trade between these countries.
    10. Considering the expected growth in intraregional trade, change in the nature of trade together with the Railways' cost competitiveness vis-à-vis the road sector, the Railways stare at a huge potential for participating in economic growth in the region by contributing significantly to the inter-regional transport of freight. There is, however, a need to highlight this potential through a demonstration run of container train.

India set to participate in Permanent Indus Commission meet in Lahore
  •  India is going to attend the Permanent Indus Commission meet, scheduled to be held in Lahore this month. Pakistan forwarded the invitation to India to resolve the Indus Water Treaty (IWT), sources say.
    The Permanent Indus Commission is a bilateral commission of officials from India and Pakistan, created to implement and manage goals of the Indus Waters Treaty.
    The treaty which was signed in 1960 by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Pakistan President Ayub Khan, gives India control over the three eastern rivers of the Indus basin, the Beas, the Ravi and the Sutlej, while Pakistan has the three western rivers, the Indus, the Chenab and the Jhelum.
    As per the provisions in the treaty, India can use only 20 per cent of the total water carried by the Indus River. The IWT, 1960 is seen as one of the most successful international treaties and has withstood frequent tensions between India and Pakistan, including conflict.
    • The relations between the two nuclear-armed nations plummeted following the Pathankot terror attack that took place in January last year.
    •  Pakistan has firmly stated that it will not accept any alterations or changes to the IWT after India had said that it is ready to engage in further consultations with Islamabad on the matter of resolving current differences over the Kishenganga and Ralte projects under the treaty.
    • Islamabad has argued that India was buying time to complete its two disputed water projects and then insisting that since the project was already complete, it could not be modified.
    • Pakistan is raising its objection to building of the Kishanganga (330 megawatts) and Ratle (850 megawatts) hydroelectric plants by India saying that it violates the provisions of the treaty.
    • Tensions increased over the water dispute when Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi last month threatened to block the flow of water into Pakistan.
    World Bank had earlier asked both the countries to consider alternative ways to resolve their disagreements over the Indus Water Treaty Dispute 1960. The World Bank had said that it was temporarily halting the appointment of a neutral expert as requested by India, and the Chairman of the Court of Arbitration, as requested by Pakistan, to resolve issues regarding two hydroelectric power plants under construction by India along the Indus Rivers system.
    The treaty sets out a mechanism for cooperation and information exchange between the two countries regarding their use of the rivers, known as the Permanent Indus Commission which includes a commissioner from each of the two countries.
    It also sets out a process for resolving so-called "questions", "differences" and "disputes" that may arise between the parties.

Uniform Civil Code aims at synergy of family law, gender equality: Law Commission chairman
  • The Law Commission, which has embarked on a gigantic exercise of inviting public opinion on the contentious Uniform Civil Code (UCC), has sought to dispel fears raised by Muslim and Christian groups, assuring that personal laws will not be touched "beyond the extent permitted by the Constitution".
    In his first interview after receiving over 40,000 responses to a questionnaire on the proposal, commission chairman Justice Balbir Singh Chauhan told Mail Today that the focus of the exercise is only to end gender discrimination and social injustice.
    The effort is to synergise family law with gender equality, he said, ruling out any attempt to end plurality of laws.
    1. The ruling BJP has been pushing for such a common code despite resistance from rivals and even some allies. Religious minority groups have opposed the plan, saying such a common law would interfere with their codes of conduct.
    2. Terming the number of responses to the questionnaire "overwhelming", Chauhan said in a lighter vein that "now it has become like counting money which has accumulated in a temple hundi".
    3. "We will not go outside the constitutional framework," he said. "So there is no reason for anyone to have any kind of apprehension. It is a comprehensive exercise of the revision and reform of family laws. The objective is only to address discrimination against various groups and harmonise various cultural practices," said Chauhan.
    4. Articles 25 to 28 of the Constitution guarantee every citizen the right to practice and promote their religion peacefully.
    5. Asked about fears raised from various quarters that the UCC would infringe this fundamental right, the former Supreme Court judge said, "We are making it clear that we are not touching any constitutional right of any individual. We are very mindful of that. Whatever we will do, will be within the framework of the Constitution and law of the country."
    6. The demand for a uniform civil code essentially means unifying personal laws to have one set of secular laws that will apply to all citizens of India irrespective of the community they belong to. The BJP had also promised UCC in its poll manifesto ahead of the 2014 general elections. The Constitution right now allows most religions to regulate matters such as marriage, divorce and inheritance through their own civil code.
    Chauhan's remarks assume significance against the backdrop of bodies like the All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) refusing to even debate UCC.
    They had rejected the questionnaire, terming it an "affront" on their personal laws and even accused the law panel of behaving like an agent of the Narendra Modi government - arguing that the proposed common code is a threat to the country's pluralism and diversity. However, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India last month came out in support of UCC on the condition that it confirms the "spirit and mandate" of the Constitution.
    "Why can't there be a healthy debate on the issue?" Chauhan asked. "That is the purpose behind the questionnaire. Why should the commission take a decision without knowing what the people want? According to us, this is the most democratic approach and Article 44 of the Constitution says the state shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code. So this whole exercise has the backing of the Constitution also."
    The 16-point questionnaire includes questions on what are the subjects that the UCC should include or exclude, if all religions should have common grounds for divorce and if UCC will ensure gender equality. It also seeks views on talaq, polyandry, polygamy, etc.

    Asked about the nature of reforms, Chauhan said, "Only after going through responses will we decide how we will have to proceed. We ourselves do not know what the code will be." The commission issued the questionnaire after law ministry on July 2 last year asked it to examine all issues pertaining to the code and submit a report.

Indian Railways' new train of thought: Ro-Ro service to cut down traffic woes in Delhi
  • A new train of thought from Indian Railways will help unclog the National Capital Region's trafficpacked roads and help residents breathe easy.
    With the launch of a roll-on-roll-off (Ro-Ro) service to carry loaded trucks on wagons from Haryana's Gurugram to Muradnagar in Uttar Pradesh, the network plans to extend the service to private vehicles jostling with daily snarls.
    According to the railways, about 20,000 trucks not meant for NCR enter the region daily to travel further. Out of the total 127 entry-exit points to the city, nine major points crisscrossing the region account for 75 per cent of the commercial light and heavy duty trucks. Railway ministry officials said eight more routes will be identified soon.
    A study by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) shows commercial vehicles entering Delhi spew close to 30 per cent of the total particulate load and 22 per cent of nitrogen oxide load from the transport sector.
    The Ro-Ro service aims to reduce carbon emission and congestion on the roads of the national capital region (NCR) as about 66,000 diesel-guzzling trucks pass through Delhi and its adjoining areas in a day.
    "Nearly 80 per cent of the heavy goods vehicles entering Delhi are overloaded, but the border checkpoints don't have the mechanism to weigh these vehicles. These diesel-guzzling trucks are also the major source of pollutants PM 2.5 and PM 10 that have hit an all-time high in Delhi in recent months. Launch of Ro-Ro service is a welcome initiative but it will be beneficial only after capacity augmentation," said Dr PK Sarkar, head of transport planning at the School of Planning and Architecture.
    1. The railways' Delhi division has made a detailed presentation to the rail ministry for capacity augmentation of the city's ring railway and laying new tracks for faster movement of freight trains. At present four Ro-Ro trains will be operated that can only cater to about 500, but the plan is to increase the capacity to 40 trains per day.
    2. Transport experts said the Rajokri and Kalindi Kunj border points cater to nearly a fourth of the trucks entering Delhi. A recent study by the SPA found that Rajokri border on the Delhi-Gurugram section of NH-8 handles 14.30 per cent of freight traffic while the Kalindi Kunj point on Delhi-Sarita Vihar route caters to 11.67 per cent of the trucks entering the Capital.
    3. "We have engaged (the government's engineering consultancy company) RITES to explore commercial utilisation and capacity augmentation of the ring railway. Keeping in view the burgeoning traffic on Delhi's roads particularly NH-24, NH-8, ring road and the outer ring road, the Ro-Ro service can be helpful for travellers between Uttar Pradesh and Haryana," Delhi divisional railway manager (DRM) Arun Arora told Mail Today. RITES will also be exploring the possibility of new rail tracks on the outskirts of Delhi.
    4. On Thursday, Railway Minister Suresh Prabhu launched the pilot project. About 30 loaded trucks were transported on flat wagons from Garhi Harsuru station in Gurugram to Muradnagar. "The Ro-Ro is a boon for Delhi as it would have a direct impact on its air ambient quality and the Capital would breathe clean air," Prabhu said.
    5. Railway officials said it is a win-win situation for truckers as well as for railways as goods will be transported in a safe and faster way, saving cost on diesel and man-days apart from reducing pollution.
    6. This model would allow for movement of trucks in daytime too which was earlier restricted between 7am and 11pm. This will result in saving 8-10 hours of transit time.

Business Affairs 

Sensex ends lower, Nifty falls below 8,900-mark
  • The benchmark indices settled the day flat, marking a fall for the second session after investors booked profits after a sharp rally in previous sessions.
    The fall in stocks was in line with their Asian peers as expectations of a US interest rate hike weighed on market sentiment.
    The S&P BSE Sensex closed at 28,832, down 7.34 per cent while the Nifty50 ended the day 8,897, 2.20 points lower.
    "The decline in the indexes is not surprising. It was expected that some profit-booking would take place and that is what we're seeing now," said Gaurang Shah, vice president, Geojit Financial Services to Reuters.
    "Some caution can also be expected ahead of the state election results," he added.
    Shares of Apollo Hospitals fell 5 per cent after a unit of Malaysian sovereign fund Khazanah launched a block deal to sell $160 million worth of shares in the company.
    Reliance Industries Ltd rose over 4 per cent in intra-day trade.
    Among the other top performers were GAIL whose stock rose over 3 per cent on the BSE. 

Jio versus incumbents: War is not over yet
  • Last week, when Reliance Industries Ltd's (RIL) chairman and managing director Mukesh Ambani, launched the Reliance Jio Prime programme, telecom operators such as Airtel, Vodafone and Idea Cellular must have heaved a sigh of relief. The time for freebies is finally over. 

    The Prime programme, priced at Rs 303 per month, can be activated by paying a one-time fee of Rs 99 and comes with unlimited free calls and 30 GB data every month.

    Jio, which offered free voice calls and data for seven months, will start charging its 100-million subscriber base from April 1 onwards, albeit a paltry amount. But the older telcos believe this will end the price distortions created by Jio over the past few months.

    Top telcos, Airtel and Vodafone, have already launched competitive plans to take on the Jio's Prime programme.

    Vodafone has launched a new tariff plan of Rs 346 that offers 28 GB data and unlimited free calls for a month. The company has further sweetened the deal by offering 56 GB data and unlimited free calls for 56 days when a user activates the pack for the first time.

    Earlier this week, Airtel announced two bundled plans to counter Jio Prime - priced at Rs 145 and Rs 349 for a month. The plans offer 14 GB of 3G/4G data and unlimited voice calls.
    However, the cheaper plan offers unlimited calls only on Airtel's network (landline and mobile) while the Rs 349 variant offers unlimited voice calls across all networks. Idea too has launched a plan for Rs 348 per month offering unlimited voice calls, and 500 megabytes (or 14 GB) of 4G data per day - for select users.

    But it is too little, too late from the incumbents while Jio seems to have found favour with the users who are not particularly happy about the 'reactionary offers' of the older telcos.
    Airtel has also announced it is planning to kill the national roaming charges and reduce its international roaming rates by 90 per cent. The company's move to end national roaming charges is largely driven by the fact that Jio started off with zero roaming rates last September. Many subscribers are livid as Airtel has taken so long to take this step.
    Nevertheless, some loyalists still laud Airtel's move - half-heartedly.

Private banks charging fees above four cash transactions amounts to financial terrorism: Traders' body
  • The move by private sector lenders to levy fees over four cash transactions at their branches has attracted criticism by a traders' body.
    The Confederation of All India Traders (CAIT) termed the charges as "financial terrorism".
    CAIT General Secretary Praveen Khandelwal told IANS that this was no way to encourage digital payments.
    Objecting to the charges, Khandelwal said if government wanted to leverage digital payments, it should absorb transaction charges by subsidising them to the banks. He also demanded effective incentive schemes to promote more and more digital payments in India.
    A few private sector banks have started levying heavy charges on cash transactions. The move comes four months after Prime Minister Modi's demonestisation drive which has pushed the nation at the cusp of a digital revolution.
    These charges can go up to Rs 150 depending on the number of transactions made in a single month. The exorbitant charges on cash transactions will deter people from pursuing cash transactions. So far, PSU banks have not applied such high taxes on cash transactions but the government did put a cap of Rs 3 lakh on transactions done in cash.  
    Banks including HDFC Bank, ICICI Bank and Axis Bank began charging a minimum amount of Rs 150 per transaction for cash deposits and withdrawals beyond four free transactions in a month. The charges are being levied on savings as well as salary accounts effective from March 2, 2017, leading private sector player HDFC Bank said in a circular.
    The move was seen in some quarters as aimed at discouraging cash transactions and furthering the digital payment drive. For the basic no-frills accounts, maximum four cash withdrawals would continue to remain free and there would be no fees for cash deposits.
    In case of ICICI Bank, the charges are same as they were before the demonetisation move announced on November 8, while there is an increase in such fees in case of some others.

    Services PMI returns to growth after 3 months of contraction
    • The services sector rebounded in February -- for the first time since October -- as businesses recovered from the demonetisation-led disruptions seen in the previous three months, a monthly survey showed today.
      The Nikkei India Services Purchasing Managers' Index (PMI), which tracks services sector firms on a monthly basis, stood at 50.3 in February, up from 48.7 registered in January.
      After slipping to a near three-year low last November, signalling the first monthly drop in output since June 2015, the headline index edged above the 50.0 mark, that separates expansion from contraction.
      "The upturn in services activity follows news from the sister PMI survey showing factory production growing for the second straight month in February," Pollyanna De Lima, economist at IHS Markit, and also the author of the report, said.
      However, the year-ahead outlook for the services sector remained subdued. The survey participants were less optimistic about the 12-month outlook as firms were concerned about market competition and this muted sentiments reflected in the payroll numbers as well as services companies continued to reduce staff numbers.
      "It is still too early to state that expansion rates will climb to their trend levels in the near term. Companies remain reluctant to take on additional staff and confidence towards the 12-month outlook for output dipped to its second-lowest mark in over one year," Lima said adding that these factors indicate that, so far, firms are doubtful about the sustainability of the economic recovery.
      Meanwhile, the Nikkei India Composite PMI Output Index -- that maps both the manufacturing as well as services sector -- rose from 49.4 in January to 50.7, pointing to the first increase in private sector activity across India since last October.
      "With demand conditions strengthening in India, new business inflows rose in both sectors, leading to the first increases in private sector new work orders and output since October 2016. Nevertheless, growth rates were mild at best and far from their historical averages," Lima added.
      On the prices front, input cost inflation accelerated and service providers also raised their charges so much so that "the increase in output charges was the first in five months and the most pronounced since mid-2016", the survey said.
      The increase in prices may spoil the case for any immediate interest rate cut by the Reserve Bank.
      The Reserve Bank in its policy review meet on February 8 kept key interest rate unchanged at 6.25 per cent and said it is awaiting more clarity on the inflation trend and impact of demonetisation on growth.

      Tata-DoCoMo truce may leave Japanese firm with $790 million to invest in India
      • Tata Sons will split a dispute settlement payment of $1.18 billion owed to NTT DoCoMo over the Japanese firm's exit from a telecoms joint venture, leaving it with about two-thirds of the amount to invest in India, a source said.
        Both companies are likely to approach India's central bank within 15 days with a plan that will offer to split the payment into two parts, the source, who has direct knowledge of the matter, said.
        While Tata Sons will pay the fair value of DoCoMo's 26 percent stake outside India, or roughly $390 million according to Reuters calculations, DoCoMo would need to invest the balance of $790 million in India, either for expansion or other joint ventures, the source added.
        It was not immediately clear how DoCoMo would use the money if the plan were formalised.
        "DoCoMo at least gets control of the money and can use it for investment in India," said the source, who requested anonymity, as the decision is not final.
        Another possible alternative could be that DoCoMo receives the entire payment in India and retains it for future investment instead of repatriating it, a second source close to Tata Sons said.
        Any deal is subject to the Reserve Bank of India's approval.
        Tata Sons declined to comment. DoCoMo did not immediately reply to an email seeking comment.
        Tata Teleservices, a unit of salt-to-software conglomerate Tata Sons, and DoCoMo formed a telecoms partnership in 2009. In the event of an exit, that deal guaranteed DoCoMo the higher of either half its original investment, or its fair value.
        When DoCoMo decided to get out in 2014, Tata Sons was unable to find a buyer for the Japanese firm's stake and offered to buy the stake itself, for half DoCoMo's investment of $2.2 billion.
        India's central bank blocked Tata Sons' offer, saying a rule change the previous year prevented foreign investors from selling stakes in Indian firms at a pre-determined price.
        DoCoMo took the case to a London court and won the arbitration. Tata Sons was asked to pay a penalty of $1.18 billion, which it has deposited with the Delhi High Court in the Indian capital, where the case is being heard.
        On Tuesday, Tata Sons and DoCoMo agreed to settle out of court, after a new chairman took charge at the Indian conglomerate. DoCoMo has also agreed to end all legal proceedings against Tata Sons in Britain and the United States for a period of time. 

      General Awareness

      List of Important founders of Journals and News papers in Olden days

      • Dear Readers & Aspirants
        We have collected some important Founders of Journals and News papers in Olden days. Now-a-days GA questions are asking from various section in different views. We hope, it will help you in Competitive exams.
        Name of Journals/News PaperName of the Founder
        Al-HilalAbul Kalam Azad
        Al-BalaghAbul Kalam Azad
        New India(Daily)Annie Besant
        CommonwealAnnie Besant
        Vande MataramAurobindo Ghosh
        SandhyaB.B. Upadhyaya
        MooknayakB.R. Ambedkar
        Bahishkrit BharaB.R. Ambedkar
        KesariBal Gangadhar Tilak
        MahrattaBal Gangadhar Tilak,
        Darpan(Marathi)Bal Shastri Jambhekar
        Kavivachan SudhaBhartendu Harishchandra
        Kavi Vachan SudhaBhartendu Harishchandra
        YugantarBhupendranath Data and Barinder Kumar Ghosh
        New India(Weekly)Bipin Chandra Pal
        Bande MataramBipin Chandra Pal and later edited by Sri Aurobindo
        Talwar(Berlin)Birendra Nath Chattopadhyaya
        Rast Goftar(Gujrati)Dadabhai Naoroji
         Voice of IndiaDadabhai Naoroji
        Indian MirrorDevendra Nath Tagore
        The TribuneDyal Singh Majithia
        Bombay ChronicleFiroze Shah Mehta
        Swadesamitran(Tamil)G Subramaniya Aiyar
        PratapGanesh Shankar Vidyarthi
        Inquilab(Urdu)Ghulam Hussain
        Hindu PatriotGirish Chandra Ghosh(later Harish Chandra Mukherji)
        Hindoo PatriotHarish Chandra Mukherjee
        India GazettejHenry Louis Vivian Derozio
        Som PrakeshIshwar Chandra Vidyasagar
        Bengal Gazette(Bengali)J.K.Hikki
        Hindustan TimesK.M. Pannikar
        Vichar LahiriKrishnashastri Chiplunkar
        PunjabiLala Lajpat Rai
        Essays in Indian EconomicsM.G. Ranade
        HindustanM.M. Malviya
        Nav JeevanMahatma Ghandhi
        Indian OpinionMahatma Ghandhi
        Young IndiaMahatma Ghandhi
        HarijanMahatma Ghandhi
        KrantiMirajkar, Joglekar, Ghate
        ComradeMohammad Ali
        IndependentMotilal Nehru
        Din MitraMukundarao Patil
        Navyug(Magazine)Muzaffar Ahmed
        Samvad KaumudiRam Mohan Roy
        Mirat-ul-AkbharRam Mohan Roy
        Kudi ArasuRamaswamy Naiker
        StatesmanRobert Knight
        The StatesmanRobert Knight
        Bombay TimesRobert Knight & Thomas Bennnet
        Indian SocialistShyamji Krishna Verma
        Tahzib-ul-AkhlaqSir Syyed Ahmed Khan
        Amrita Bazar PatrikaSisir Kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh
        Prabudha BharatSwami Vivekananda
        UdbodhanaSwami Vivekananda
        Free Hindustan(in Vancouver)Tarak Nath Das
        Native OpinionV.N. Mandalik
        HinduVir Raghavacharya and G.S. Aiyar

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