Current Affairs Current Affairs - 9 January 2017 - Vikalp Education

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Current Affairs - 9 January 2017

General Affairs 

Petrol pumps not to accept payment through cards from Monday
  • Vehicle owners using cards to purchase fuel will face tough time from Monday as petrol pumps have decided not to accept payments through credit, debit cards since the banks have levied 1 per cent charge for every sale. “In view of the debit of MDR of 1% it has been decided to stop accepting payment through Credit/Debit Cards from 9th January 2017,” said Ajay Bansal, President of All India Petroleum Dealers Association, in a statement.
    Earlier last month, the government had announced .75 per cent discount on purchase of fuel through card.
    Bansal added that since their profit margin is fixed on a per KL basis, they could not bear additional charges levied by banks. “Our margins are fixed on a per KL basis and do not have any scope to absorb these charges. We have specific mechanisms to compute the margin and these do not have any scope for credit card MDR. This will lead to financial loses for the dealers,” he said.
    He also alleged delay in settlement of dues by banks. “To compound maters further these credit card machine issuers are delaying settlements and not settling the entire dues as per our settlements. There are disputes about purchases being returned or not delivered. In a Retail Outlet there is no scope for returns or not being delivered a product once you have paid for the same. The reconciliation of swipes to amount being credit to our accounts is causing a lot of hardships and losses to a large percentage of the dealer community,” he added.
    According to Mumbai Petrol Dealers’ Association, most of the petrol pumps are using HDFC Point of sale (POS) machines.

    Narendra Modi and the Diaspora: From the Indian to South Asian
    • As Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s political romance with the Indian diaspora continues, there is a strong case for extending his outreach to all the peoples of South Asian origin. Having transformed the way Delhi thinks about diaspora, Modi must now try and connect it to the Subcontinent’s expatriate communities around the world.
      Modi made no mention of the South Asian diaspora at the opening of the biennial Pravasi Bharatiya Divas in Bengaluru on Sunday. But his remark that Delhi must look beyond the ‘colour of the passport’ to the ‘blood relationships’ applies to all of the South Asian diaspora. Since South Asia has multiple sovereign entities, Delhi can’t extend all possible support to the Subcontinent’s diaspora population. For example India can’t provide consular services to citizens of its neighbouring countries.
      But given the depth of historic, cultural, ethnic and commercial links that bind the South Asian people and the varying levels of contemporary special relationships with the neighbours , there is much that Delhi can do in promoting links with the Subcontinental diaspora–from mobilizing their resources for common developmental goals in the region to providing humanitarian assistance to those caught in crisis zones.
      If the Indian diaspora (including citizens and people of Indian origin) is today estimated to be around 30 million, the numbers from our neighbours are equally impressive. If we take the expat communities from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, the total South Asian diaspora could add up to more than 50 million. The premises of Modi’s engagement with the Indian diaspora are equally applicable in connecting to the rest.
      If Atal Bihari Vajpayee laid the foundation for reimagining India’s ties with the diaspora at the turn of the millennium, Modi has made it a key area of national priority. For Modi, the diaspora is an ‘asset’ rather than a ‘liability’ and India’s intellectual power beyond borders ‘brain gain’ and not ‘brain drain’.
      Modi has bet that Indian diaspora can enhance its contribution to India’s economic development, act a bridge to the nations that host them, and help promote India’s broader international goals. Beyond these objectives, the South Asian diaspora could facilitate some special goals that Modi has set for the nation–of accelerating regional economic integration and building on the shared cultural heritage.
      Promoting bonds with the South Asian diaspora could help rejuvenate historic cross-border associations and moderate some of the inter-state conflicts. All the South Asian diasporic communities are all loyal to their own particular countries. Living as they do in distant lands, they are acutely conscious of the shared Subcontinental identity. This is a very precious resource that remains to be tapped by Modi’s foreign policy activism. A modest beginning can be made my inviting South Asian community leaders to Modi’s interaction with the diaspora during his travels abroad and to the PBD conventions and conferences in India.

    Samajwadi Party symbol may be frozen if EC can’t take decision before January 17
    • Cycle, the symbol of Samajwadi Party, faces the threat of being frozen before the Uttar Pradesh assembly polls if the Election Commission is not able to decide which of the two factions of the party commands majority in the organisation.

      After the split in the party last week, the factions led by Mulayam Singh Yadav and his son Akhilesh had approached the Commission staking claim over the party and the symbol.
      Both the sides had also submitted some documents to further their claim and the Commission has given them time till Monday to provide signed affidavits of legislators and office bearers to claim control over the party’s name and symbol.
      The side which has the support of majority (50 per cent plus 1) MPs, MLAs, MLCs and delegates will gain an upper hand in the fight to control the party founded 25 years ago.
      The Commission, sources said, will have to decide on who commands the majority in SP before January 17 when the notification for the first phase of assembly polls is issued. The election for phase one is on February 2.
      With the notification, the process of filing nominations will begin. Candidates from Mulayam and Akhilesh camps cannot fight election on cycle symbol at the same time, therefore, the EC will have to take a call on the issue before that date.
      “These will be days of fast-paced developments. January 17 is still far…yes, if both sides claim support of equal number of legislators and office bearers and EC is unable to take a final decision, an interim order can be passed … freezing the symbol is one such option available,” a source said. Another source said if the two sides are willing to settle issue fast, EC can arrive at a conclusion before January 17.
      According to the sources, if elections are imminent, then the poll body does not have the time to verify the legislative majority of both factions. In such a situation, it can pass an interim order asking both sides to pick a new party name and symbol.
      This happened in the case of Uttarakhand Kranti Dal, a recognised state party in 2011. Both factions laid claim to the symbol ‘chair’. The poll panel had then approved Uttarakhand Kranti Dal (P) with the symbol ‘cup and saucer’ for one group led by Trivender Singh Pawar and Jantantrik Uttarakhand Kranti Dal and ‘kite’ as the new name and symbol for the faction led by Diwakar Bhatt.

    Convert PIO cards to OCI by June-end, PM Modi tells Indian diaspora
    • Government is working to put in place procedures for making descendants of the indentured labour living in Fiji and other countries eligible for OCI cards, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said Sunday. “Starting with Mauritius, we are working to put in place procedures so that descendants of Girmitiyas could become eligible for OCI Cards. We remain committed to addressing similar difficulties of PIOs in Fiji, Reunion Islands, Suriname, Guyana and other Caribbean States,” he said in his address at the 14th Pravasi Bharatiya Divas here.

      Girmityas are descendents of indentured Indian labourers who were brought to Fiji to work on sugarcane plantations in mid-1800s. The Prime Minister also urged the People of Indian Origin (PIO) to convert their cards into Overseas Citizen of India cards, reiterating the government’s decision to extend the deadline for these card conversions from December 31 last year to June 30, without any penalty.
      “From January 1 this year, beginning with Delhi and Bengaluru, we have set up special counters at immigration points for OCI cardholders. We want it to become a symbol of global migration, achievements and aspirations of the diaspora,” he said.
      Observing that there are over 30 million overseas Indians living abroad, he said they were not just respected for their numbers, but for the contributions they have made to the societies they live in.
      “The NRIs and PIOs have made outstanding contributions to their chosen fields. They are role models for immigrants from other backgrounds and countries … They take our values and culture wherever they go. The Indian diaspora have contributed their best towards progress in that country,” Modi said. He said the remittance of close to 69 billion dollars annually by overseas Indians made an invaluable contribution to the Indian economy.
      Talking about brain drain, Modi government said his government was taking steps to convert brain drain into brain gain. “When people spoke of brain drain, it was believed that the brighter people went abroad seeking employment opportunities … but I was asking people that whoever are left behind in India, are they dumb? It is our endeavour to convert that brain drain into brain gain,” he said.
      Modi also said the government will launch skill development programme, Pravasi Kaushal Vikas Yojna, for Indian youth who seek employment overseas.

    R Ashwin, Ravindra Jadeja maintain top slots in ICC Tests bowlers rankings
    • India’s spin twins R Ashwin and Ravindra Jadeja held onto the top two slots in the ICC’s latest Test ranking for bowlers while skipper Virat Kohli was a notch behind Steve Smith in batsmen’s list.
      Ashwin (887 points) and Jadeja (879 points) were Nos 1 and 2 in the list while Australian seamer Josh Hazlewood (860 points), who gained 29 points, by virtue of his good show against Pakistan has risen to the third spot in the list.
      South African Kagiso Rabada was another big gainer as he jumped nine spots to be eighth in the list.
      The only other Indian in the top-20 is speedster Mohammed Shami, who is in 19th position.
      In the batsmen’s list, Steve Smith is still atop the list with 933 points even though he dropped foyr ranking points.
      However Indian captain Kohli is a distant second with 875 points. There is no other Indian batsman in the Top-10 while Cheteshwar Pujara and Ajinkya Rahane are 12th and 16th respectively.
      India are the No 1 team in ICC Test rankings with 120 rating points, well ahead of Australia, who are in the 2nd position with 109 points.

    Business Affairs 

      Demonetisation impact: Govt’s GDP growth forecast overestimated, says rating agencies
      • Rating agencies have said the GDP growth projection released by the government on Friday is overestimated “given the impact of demonetisation on actual activity from mid-November 2016 onward”. ICRA and Care Ratings have forecast 6.8 per cent growth for 2016-17 and Crisil 6.9 per cent while the government has projected 7.1 per cent growth.
        The primary reason for the government’s overestimate is the absence of sufficient information for the third quarter when the economy slowed due to demonetisation. There are only a handful of indicators for the fiscal’s third quarter that the government could have looked at, to arrive at the full year forecast now, such as agriculture production and sowing data, government expenditure and sales tax.
        These numbers will be revised downwards further once the final demonetisation impact is taken in. while banking will move up, others like manufacturing, construction and transport/trade services will move downwards, Care Ratings said. “Our estimate is that GDP growth can move down further to 6.8 per cent,” Care said.
        “The government has to think of ways of providing a push to investment as the continuous decline is a worry,” Care Ratings said.
        ICRA pegged the expected growth for 2016-17 lower at 6.8 per cent, stating that “projecting GDP growth for the full year by extrapolating the trends up to October 2016 for several sectors, may introduce more errors than in earlier years. This would be particularly apt for cash intensive sectors such as construction.”
        On Friday, first advance estimates released by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) showed India’s GDP growth is seen decelerating to 7.1 per cent in 2016-17 (April-March) from 7.6 per cent last year, primarily due to slowdown in manufacturing, mining and construction sectors.
        Crisil Research said advance estimates by CSO may have an upward bias, especially in terms of government consumption growth (23.8 per cent) and government services growth (12.8 per cent). Agriculture and industrial sector growth estimates are in line with our forecasts. Crisil had estimated GDP to grow at 6.9 per cent in fiscal 2017.
        “In the wake of demonetisation, even if the situation limps back to business as usual by the end of fourth quarter, not all impacted sectors may rebound equally,” Crisil said. Sectors hitherto dealing in high value cash transactions such as real estate (and thereby related sectors such as cement and other building products), and luxury automobiles, may take longer to revive compared with others, it said.
        The advance estimates released by the CSO of growth in FY2017 are unsurprising, as they draw heavily from the available data for the first half of this fiscal, ICRA said.
        However, ICRA said it expects GDP and GVA (gross value added, which excludes taxes and subsidies) growth for FY2017 at 6.8 per cent and 6.6 per cent respectively, appreciably lower than the advance estimates.
        According to Crisil, the outlook for fiscal 2018 will be shaped by how long the cash crunch led disruption lasts. “In our base case, we have taken it as a 2-quarter phenomenon — Q3 and Q4 and normalisation after that. In this scenario, growth will start approaching the 8 per cent mark in the next fiscal if monsoons too remain normal, Crisil said.
        The CSO has released advance estimates for this financial year a month earlier in line with the advancement of the Union Budget for 2017-18 to February 1. However, the advance estimates of GDP for 2016-17 are based on the sectoral data for the first seven months of this financial year (April-October) and do not reflect the impact of the government’s November 8 decision to scrap high-denomination currency notes of Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 on economic growth.

        Undisclosed income: I-T unearths Rs 490 crore since Dec 30, total swells to Rs 4,807 crore
        • The Income Tax Department has detected over Rs 490 crore of undisclosed income since December 30, the last day of the 50-day deposit window after the scrapping of old currency notes.
          In a series of actions involving over 1,138 searches, surveys and seizures and 5,184 notices, the Income Tax Department has detected Rs 4,807.45 crore of undisclosed income since the government’s Nobember 8 decision to withdraw high-denomination currency notes of Rs 500 and Rs 1,000
          The total undisclosed income admitted or detected as part of the action conducted by the I-T department, till December 29, was Rs 4,313.79 crore.
          An increasing number of cases are also being referred by the tax department to other law enforcement agencies such as Enforcement Directorate (ED) and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) to probe other financial crimes like money laundering, disproportionate assets and corruption. About 20 references have been made to ED during December 30-January 5, taking the total references to ED to 279. About 19 references have been made to the CBI in the last one week, increasing the total references during November 9-January 5 to 247, an official said.
          In the period from December 30-January 5, the tax department has seized cash and jewellery worth Rs 54.78 crore, taking the total seizures since the currency withdrawal decision to Rs 609.39 crore.
          For November 9-January 5, total jewellery seizure has been worth Rs 97.8 crore. Total cash worth Rs 511.59 crore has been seized by the tax department’s operations, out of which Rs 112.8 crore is in new currency, the official said.
          The tax department has carried out a total of 563 surveys, 257 searches and 318 seizures across the country during November 9-January 5 to curb tax evasion and keep a check on hoarding of currency.

        Indian businesses most optimistic on economic revival in 2017
        • India has emerged as the most optimistic country globally in terms of business optimism as the country’s businesses are high on expectations of increasing revenue, employment, profitability, says a survey. According to the latest Grant Thornton International Business Report (IBR) survey, Indian businesses are the most optimistic about economic recovery in 2017.

          “India continues to stand out as the one economy which has huge potential to continue to grow and this is reflected in the survey where Indian businesses are most optimistic and high on expectations of increasing revenue, employment, profitability,” said Harish H V, Partner – India leadership team, Grant Thornton India.
          India had ranked second on the optimism index during the third quarter (July-September 2016) and has leaped to first in the December quarter, with 88 per cent of the respondents voting for it.
          India tops the chart on expectations of increasing revenue (89 per cent) where it slipped to third position in July-September.
          Harish noted that this is “a great time” for policymakers to look at unleashing the next generation of reforms, apart from GST, mostly focused on ease of doing business and minimum government, maximum governance.
          “That requires a change in mindset among policymakers and implementing reforms in the legal system and contract enforcement. There is an overall increase in global optimism which augurs very well for India in terms of attracting investments and providing markets for Indian products and services globally,” Harish added.
          The country also ranked number one on the parameters of employment expectations (62 per cent) and selling prices (68 per cent). India Inc’s profitability expectations further moved down to the second position from rank three in the third quarter.
          Globally, business optimism at the end of the fourth quarter of 2016 stood at a net 38 per cent, up five percentage point from its previous quarter and the highest level since July-September of 2015.
          “We have clients in over 140 countries and… can say uncertainty was the business buzzword of 2016, and much of that came from Brexit and the US presidential election. That uncertain period is gone now, and knowing the results will allow businesses to have a clearer steer on such key issues such as taxes, jobs and trade policy,” said Francesca Lagerberg, Global leader at Grant Thornton.

          The scale and the report are prepared on the basis of results of the quarterly conducted global business survey of 2,600 businesses across 37 economies.

          Iran capitalises on OPEC oil cut to sell millions of barrels
          • Iran has sold more than 13 million barrels of oil that it had long held on tankers at sea, capitalising on an OPEC output cut deal from which it is exempted to regain market share and court new buyers, according to industry sources and data.
            In the past three months, Tehran has sold almost half the oil it had held in floating storage, which had tied up many of its tankers as it struggled to offload stocks in an oversupplied global market.

            The amount of Iranian oil held at sea has dropped to 16.4 million barrels, from 29.6 million barrels at the beginning of October, according to Thomson Reuters Oil Flows data. Before that sharp drop, the level had barely changed in 2016; it was 29.7 million barrels at the start of last year, the data showed.
            Unsold oil is now tying up about 12 to 14 Iranian tankers, out of its fleet of about 60 vessels, compared with around 30 in the summer, according to two tanker-tracking sources.
            The oil sold in recent months has gone to buyers in Asia including China, India and South Korea and to European countries including Italy and France, according to the sources and data. It was unclear which companies bought the oil.
            Iran is also looking to use the opportunity to push into new markets in Europe, including Baltic and other central and eastern European countries, said separate oil industry sources, though it was not clear if any oil had been sold there.
            The state-run National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) could not be reached for comment. Tanker group NITC, which operates most of the country’s fleet, could also not be reached.
            Tehran scored a victory when it was exempted from the OPEC deal agreed in November to reduce production by 1.2 million barrels per day for six months, an accord aimed at addressing the global oversupply and bolstering low oil prices.
            The country successfully argued it should not limit its production which was slowly starting to recover after the lifting of international sanctions in January last year.
            While the deal did not come into effect until the beginning of 2017, industry sources said Tehran had already been offering aggressive discounts, aiming to coax buyers globally into stocking up for winter in anticipation of the OPEC cut.
            Iran lacks enough land storage facilities for its oil and, to enable it to keep pumping crude, has relied on its tanker fleet to park excess stocks until it can find buyers. The tanker-tracking sources said it was unclear how much of the oil stored at sea was condensate, a very light grade of crude.
            In another sign of the rising activity, Iran’s oil ministry news agency SHANA reported in late December that the number of tankers able to berth at major terminal Kharg Island had reached a record in 2016 of 10 vessels at the same time.
            “Iran got its way at OPEC and the Saudis agreed not to limit their capabilities. Iran will go ahead and look to export whatever they can for winter demand (globally),” said Mehdi Varzi, a former official at NIOC who is now an independent global industry consultant.
            “This is a commercial policy of trying to get rid of a lot of their crude oil on tankers as holding oil on tankers is very expensive.” Many foreign ship insurers have resumed providing cover for Iranian vessels in recent months, which has also given Iran more scope to use its tankers to make deliveries or carry out ship to ship oil transfers rather deploying them for storage.

          Black money assessment reports can’t be disclosed, say institutes that conducted study
          • The reports on the quantum of black money held by Indians in the country and abroad cannot be made public, country’s two premier institutes that conducted studies on the ill-gotten wealth on the Finance Ministry’s directive have said. The UPA government had in 2011 asked three institutes –Delhi-based National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (NIPFP), National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) and National Institute of Financial Management (NIFM), Faridabad — to conduct studies on black money.

            The study reports of NIPFP, NCAER and NIFM were received by the Ministry on December 30, 2013; July 18, 2014 and August 21, 2014 respectively.
            Replying to an RTI query, NIPFP and NCAER said they were not authorised to share the reports.
            “Under the Terms of Reference (ToR) with the Ministry of Finance, we are not authorised to share the report without their concurrence. Such concurrence is not forthcoming and our agreement with the Ministry of Finance prohibits us from disseminating this report,” the NIPFP said in reply to the RTI application.
            The NCAER, in its response, said: “The primary repository of the report is Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT), Ministry of Finance” and the matter of sharing it should be dealt by the government.
            No response has been received so far from the NIFM, which also conducted a study.
            Earlier, the Finance Ministry had declined to share the reports submitted to it by the institutes about three years ago.
            “Information is exempt from disclosure under Section 8 (1) (c) of the RTI Act, 2005 as the study reports received from the three institutes are under examination of the government and the same along with the government’s response on these reports are yet to be taken to Parliament through the Standing Committee on Finance,” the Ministry had said.
            The Section bars disclosure of information “which would cause a breach of privilege of Parliament or State Legislature”.
            There is at present no official assessment on the quantum of black money in the country and abroad.
            “The issue of black money has attracted a lot of public and media attention in the recent past. So far, there are no reliable estimates of black money generated and held within and outside the country,” the Finance Ministry had said while ordering the studies in 2011.
            The different estimates on the quantum of black money range between USD 500 billion to USD 1,400 billion. A study by Global Financial Integrity estimated the illicit money outflow at USD 462 billion.
            The Terms of Reference (ToR) for the studies included assessment or survey of unaccounted income and wealth and profiling the nature of activities engendering money laundering both within and outside the country.

            The purpose of study was to identify, among others, important sectors of the economy in which unaccounted money is generated and examine the causes and conditions for it.

          General Awareness

          List of Space Centre and Space Agency in the World

            1. Hello Readers & Aspirants,
              We collected the list of Space Centres and Space Agency in the World and provide you in a table Format. We hope, it will help you in Competitive exams.
              SPACE CENTRES
              BelgiumLiege Space Center
              Euro Space Center
              CanadaJohn H. Chapman Space Centre
              Telus World of Science, Edmonton
              GermanyEuropean Space Operations Centre
              Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre
              European Astronaut Centre
              FranceToulouse Space Center           Guiana Space Centre
              Cannes Mandelieu Space Center
              IndiaVikram Sarabhai Space Centre
              Space Applications Centre
              Satish Dhawan Space Centre
              ItalyBroglio Space Centre
              JapanUchinoura Space Centre
              Tanegashima Space Centre
              South KoreaNaro Space Center
              NetherlandsEuropean Space Research and Technology
              NorwayNorwegian Space Centre
              PhilippinesMabuhaysat Subic Space Center
              Mabuhaysat Zamboanga Space Center
              PakistanSonmiani (space facility)
              Tilla Satellite Launch Center
              RussiaBabakin Space Centre
              Baikonur Cosmodrome
              Titov Main Test and Space Systems Control Centre
              United KingdomLeicester Space Centre
              Surrey Space Centre
              Harwell Science and Innovation Campus
              Jodrell Bank Observatory
              United StatesGoddard Space Flight Center
              John C. Stennis Space Center
              Kennedy Space Center
              Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center and Space Center Houston
              Marshall Space Flight Center
              SPACE AGENCIES
              Belarus Space AgencyBSABelarus
              Central American Association for Aeronautics and SpaceACAECosta Rica
              Aeronautics and Space Research and Diffusion CenterCIDA-EUruguay
              Mexican Space AgencyAEMMexico
              Algerian Space AgencyASALAlgeria
              Austrian Solar and Space AgencyALRAustria
              Azerbaijan National Aerospace AgencyAMAKAAzerbaijan
              Bahrain’s National Space Science AgencyNSSABahrain
              Belgian Institute for Space AeronomyBIRA, IASB, BISABelgium
              Bolivarian Agency for Space ActivitiesABAEVenezuela
              Brazilian Space AgencyAEBBrazil
              UK Space AgencyUKSAUnited Kingdom
              Bolivian Space AgencyABEBolivia
              Bulgarian Space AgencySRI-BAS,  STIL-BASBulgaria
              Canadian Space AgencyCSA, ASCCanada
              China National Space AdministrationCNSAPeople’s Republic of China
              Colombian Space CommissionCCEColombia
              Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and ProcessingCRISPSingapore
              Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research OrganisationCSIROAustralia
              Croatian Space AgencyHAS, CSACroatia
              Danish National Space CenterDRC, DNSCDenmark
              Danish Space Research InstituteDRKI, DSRIDenmark
              European Space AgencyESAEurope
              Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development AgencyGISTDAThailand
              German Aerospace CenterDLRGermany
              Hungarian Space OfficeHSOHungary
              Indian Space Research OrganisationISROIndia
              Institute for Space Applications and RemoteΙΔΕΤ, ISARSGreece
              Instituto Nacional de Técnica AeroespacialINTASpain
              Iranian Space AgencyISAIran
              Israeli Space AgencyISAIsrael
              Italian Space AgencyASIItaly
              Japan Aerospace Exploration AgencyJAXAJapan
              National Space Agency )NSAKazakhstan
              Korean Committee of Space TechnologyKCSTNorth Korea
              National Aerospace Development AdministrationNADANorth Korea
              Korea Aerospace Research InstituteKARISouth Korea
              Lithuanian Space AssociationLSALithuania
              Malaysian National Space AgencyANGKASAMalaysia
              National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASAUnited States
              National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space SciencesNARSSEgypt
              National Center of Space ResearchCNESFrance
              National Commission for Aerospace Research and DevelopmentCONIDAPeru
              National Commission for Space ResearchCNIEArgentina
              National Space Activities CommissionCONAEArgentina
              National Institute of Aeronautics and SpaceLAPANIndonesia
              National Remote Sensing Center of MongoliaNRSCMongolia
              National Remote Sensing Center of Tunisia]CNTTunisia
              Uzbek State Space Research AgencyUSSRA (UzbekCosmos)Uzbekistan
              National Space Agency of UkraineНКАУ, NSAUUkraine
              National Space OrganizationNSPORepublic of China
              National Space Research and Development AgencyNASRDANigeria
              Netherlands Institute for Space ResearchSRONNetherlands
              Norwegian Space CentreNRS, NSCNorway
              Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research CommissionSUPARCOPakistan
              FCT Space OfficeFCT SOPortugal
              Romanian Space AgencyASR, ROSARomania
              Egypt Remote Sensing CenterEASRT-RSCEgypt
              Royal Centre for Remote SensingCRTSMorocco
              Russian Federal Space AgencyROSCOSMOSRussia
              Sri Lanka Space AgencySLSASri Lanka
              TUBITAK Space Technologies Research InstituteTÜBİTAK UZAYTurkey
              Soviet space programСССРSoviet Union
              Space Research and Remote Sensing OrganizationSPARRSOBangladesh
              Polish Space AgencyPOLSAPoland
              South African National Space AgencySANSASouth Africa
              Space Research Institute of Saudi ArabiaKACST-SRISaudi Arabia
              Space Technology Institute )CNVT or STI ,  VAST-STIVietnam
              Swedish National Space BoardSNSBSweden
              Swiss Space OfficeSSOSwitzerland
              Turkmenistan National Space AgencyTNSATurkmenistan
              United Arab Emirates Space AgencyUAESAUnited Arab Emirates
              Mohammed bin Rashid Space CentreMBRSCUnited Arab Emirates

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