Current Affairs Current Affairs - 6 September 2015 - Vikalp Education

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Current Affairs - 6 September 2015

General Affairs

Full Text of Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar's Statement on OROP
  • Full Text of Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar's Statement on OROPGovernment of India respects its Defence Forces and Ex- Servicemen for their valour, patriotism and sacrifices. The Government is proud of their devotion to duty and bravery. Our Forces, besides vigilantly and gallantly defending the nation, have displayed exemplary standards of courage and bravery in natural calamities, law and order situations and other difficult circumstances.

    2. The issue of "One Rank One Pension" (OROP) has been pending for nearly four decades. It is a matter of deep anguish that the various governments remained ambivalent on the issue of OROP. In February 2014, the then government stated that OROP would be implemented in 2014-15, but did not specify what OROP would be, how it would be implemented or how much it would cost. An estimated Rs. 500 crore provided for OROP in the budget presented in February 2014 by the then government was not based on any thorough analysis. It is pertinent to mention that the then Minister of State for Defence in 2009 had, in reply to a question, informed Parliament that there are administrative, technical and financial difficulties in implementing OROP. It is for these reasons that the present government took some time to fulfil its promise.

    3. Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has, on various occasions, reiterated the Government's commitment to implement OROP for Ex-Servicemen under military pension. As stated above, the previous government had estimated that OROP would be implemented with a budget provision of a mere Rs. 500 crore. The reality, however, is that to implement OROP, the estimated cost to the exchequer would be Rs. 8,000 to 10,000 crore at present, and will increase further in future.

    4. The Government held extensive consultations with experts and Ex-Servicemen. The main argument for OROP is that the Defence personnel retire early and thus are not able to get the benefits of serving till normal retirement age. Despite the huge fiscal burden, given its commitment to the welfare of Ex-Servicemen, the Government has taken a decision to implement the OROP.

    5. In simple terms, OROP implies that uniform pension be paid to the Armed Forces personnel retiring in the same rank with the same length of service, regardless of their date of retirement. Future enhancements in the ratst of pension would be automatically passed on to the past pensioners. This implies bridging the gap between the rate of 'pension of current and past pensioners at periodic intervals. Under this definition, it has been decided that the gap between rate of pension of current pensioners and past pensioners will be bridged every 5 years.

    6. Under the OROP Scheme:

    I. The benefit will be given with effect from 1st July, 2014. The present government assumed office on 26. May, 2014 and therefore, it has been decided to make the scheme effective from a date immediately after.

    II. Arrears will be paid in four half-yearly instalments. All widows, including war widows, will be paid arrears in one instalment.

    III. To begin with, OROP would be fixed on the basis of calendar year 2013.

    IV. Pension will be re-fixed for all pensioners retiring in the same rank and with the same length of service as the average of minimum and maximum pension in 2013. Those drawing pensions above the average will be protected.

    V. Personnel who voluntarily retire will not be covered under the OROP scheme.

    VI. In future, the pension would be re-fixed every 5 years.

    7. It is estimated that the expenditure on arrears alone would be ten to twelve thousand crores of rupees. Apart from the fact that the previous government had provided for only Rs.500 crore in the Budget, it is noteworthy that the Koshiyari Committee had accepted the estimate of Rs. 235 crore as additional financial burden to implement OROP. The present government has accepted OROP in true spirit without being constrained by these inaccurate estimates.

    8. OROP is a complex issue. A thorough examination of interests of retirees of different periods and different ranks is needed. The inter-service issues of the three Forces also require consideration. This is not an administrative matter alone. Therefore, it has also been decided that a One Member Judicial Committee would be constituted which will give its report in six months.

    9. Prime Minister Shri Modi has fulfilled his commitment and approved OROP for Armed Forces personnel. Ministry of Defence will soon issue detailed Government Order.

      BJP, Congress Spar Over One Rank One Pension Announcement
      • BJP, Congress Spar Over One Rank One Pension AnnouncementNEW DELHI:  The Congress party today called the government's announcement of One Rank One Pension or OROP for retired military veterans as a 'betrayal' of the ex-servicemen's demands and said the scheme was "totally disappointing".

        The ruling BJP however said the plan was a 'historic' one, pointing out that previous Congress-led UPA government had only allocated a paltry Rs. 500 crore for a scheme that would actually cost between Rs. 8,000 to Rs. 10,000 crore.

        "The OROP row represents perhaps the greatest betrayal of this government. The Prime Minister tried to spin the issue," said Congress spokesperson Manish Tiwari.

        Congress leader and former defence minister AK Antony said, "The (Narendra) Modi government has substantially diluted the provisions of the OROP announced by the UPA. Today's announcement about OROP by the defence minister is totally disappointing."

        The BJP however welcomed the announcement, calling it a historic decision. Union Minister Venkaiah Naidu said, "It is the Congress party's passion to criticise the government for everything, forgetting that they have not been able to fulfil this responsibility when in power."

        BJP president Amit Shah said, "We have not just fulfilled the promise but implemented it as well. The Modi government has provided the retired and serving servicemen a financial security net."

        Minister of State for Information and Broadcasting Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore said the BJP government had resolved a 40-year agitation in just 15 months. He said the government will ensure "modifications" to deliver the scheme in "full spirit".

      Government to Develop Bodhgaya as Spiritual Capital: PM Modi
      • Government to Develop Bodhgaya as Spiritual Capital: PM ModiBODHGAYA:  Describing Bodhgaya as the "land of enlightenment," Prime Minister Narendra Modi today said his government would develop the site as the spiritual capital for it to serve as a civilisational bond between India and the Buddhist world.

        "I recognise how Buddhists all over the world revere Bodhgaya as a place of pilgrimage. We in India would like to develop Bodhgaya so that it can become the spiritual capital and civilisational bond between India and the Buddhist world.

        "The government of India would like to provide all possible support that its Buddhist cousin nations need for the satisfaction of their spiritual needs from this holiest of holy places for them," he said after visiting Mahabodhi Temple.

        Describing Buddha as a "crown jewel" of India, which accepts all ways of worship, he said he revered Buddha as a reformer of not only Hinduism but also the world, who gave a new world view and vision which is critical for survival of all.

        "This quality of Hinduism in India was a product of many great spiritual masters and chief among them was Buddha. And this is what sustains the secular character of India," he said, adding that the enlightenment which Buddha attained in Bodhgaya also lit the light of enlightenment in Hinduism.

        He said he as Prime Minister felt good to visit the holy place after Jawaharlal Nehru and Atal Bihari Vajpayee, noting that it was special to be here on Janmashtami, the birthday of Lord Krishna.

        He said both Gautama Buddha and Lord Krishna taught the world so much, as Krishna gave his message before the start of the great war in Mahabharata and Buddha repeatedly emphasized on rising above warfare.

        "The message by both of them was about establishing Dharma," he said, adding that both of them gave great prominence to principles and processes.

        "Gautama Buddha gave the eight-fold path and the Panchsheel, while Shri Krishna gave invaluable lessons of life in the form of Karma Yoga. These two divine souls had the strength to bring people together, rising above differences. Their teachings are most practical, eternal and are more relevant in this day and age than ever before," he said.

        Talking of the two-day Hindu Buddhist Conference on Conflict Avoidance and Environmental Consciousness that concluded in Delhi, PM Modi said, the themes of this conference in a way was inspired by values and ideals given by these two greats.

        "This, in my view, is a positive turn in the development modelling of the world of diversity...I personally consider the Hindu Buddhist Conference on Conflict Avoidance and Environmental Consciousness as an important development in a world that seems to be short of durable ideas on both issues.

        "This conference has raised a hope and urge to go beyond clash and create a dialogue framework for civilizational harmony and world peace," he said, noting that many Hindu scholars have praised Buddha.

        "Buddha gave to the world a complete system of morality, he was a great teacher of equality," Modi said, as he descried Bodh Gaya as "the land of enlightenment".

        "Years ago, what Bodh Gaya got was Siddhartha but what Bodh Gaya gave to the world was Lord Buddha, the epitome of knowledge, peace and compassion," he said.

        The Prime Minister said the turn in thinking at the global level has created the eco-system for the Hindu-Buddhist societies to carry forward their consensual ideas to the global fora and wished the wisdom reaches future generations in such a manner that they practically relate to it.

        He said the conference was conceptualised on shifting the paradigm from conflict resolution to conflict avoidance and from environmental regulation to environmental consciousness.

        "This is an extraordinary development which coincides with rise of Asia as an economic and civilizational phenomenon," he said.

        On the issue of environment, PM Modi said, the conference seems to have agreed that the philosophic underpinning of Dharma, which stresses the protection of natural heritage, is critical for sustainable development.

        PM Modi said the United Nations has come to a view that sustainable development is achievable only through aligning development to the local culture of the people.

        He said he had shared his thoughts on the two critical themes which threaten humanity as no other challenge before and recalled how in both contexts the world is looking to Buddha as conflict resolution mechanisms and environmental regulations.

        The Prime Minister said today was also a special day as India observed Teachers Day to commemorate birth anniversary of former President and teacher Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and Buddha was one of the most impactful teachers whose teachings inspired millions of people over centuries.

        He also the cited the sayings of Swami Vivekananda in his speech. He also inaugurated an exhibition "Chetiya Carika: The Pilgrimage and Quest for Truth". His visit coincided with the Global Hindu Buddhist Initiative, whose delegates were present at Bodhgaya.

      Indian-American Teen Charged With Murder of Man
      • Indian-American Teen Charged With Murder of ManHOUSTON:  A 17-year-old Indian-American has been charged with first-degree murder of a 37-year-old man following an altercation in the US state of Florida, police said.

        Sean Patel, who lives in Clearwater, is accused of shooting dead Davtara G Grayson from Tampa at his home.

        According to police, Mr Patel knew the victim and both began to argue on Thursday night before the altercation turned physical.

        It was not clear how the two knew each other and whether the victim, too, was an Indian-American.

        A police officer on patrol heard or saw the commotion, and when she entered the home, she found the victim's body,

        The Tampa Tribune reported yesterday, citing the police. Mr Patel, who shot Mr Grayson with a gun stolen from an unlocked vehicle in Madeira Beach on June 11, was taken into custody about an hour later and is being held at a local juvenile detention facility, they said.

        The State Attorney's office will determine whether Mr Patel will be charged as an adult.

      Not Fully Satisfied With OROP Announcement: Ex-servicemen
      • Not Fully Satisfied With OROP Announcement: Ex-servicemenNEW DELHI:  Protesting ex-servicemen today said they were not "fully satisfied" with the One Rank One Pension (OROP) scheme announced by the government as all of their demands had not been met.

        "Though we welcome the implementation of the OROP by the government, we are not fully satisfied as they have not accepted the six points demanded by the ex-servicemen," Major General Satbir Singh (retd), who has been spearheading the campaign for OROP, told the media at Jantar Mantar shortly after Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar announced the scheme would be implemented.

        He said a decision on the future course of their agitation would be taken later in the evening.

        "The defence minister had said that personnel opting for voluntary retirement would not be given the benefit of OROP. If they do not get then it is a big blow to our defence forces as more than 40 per cent of servicemen opt for premature retirement," he said.

        Another bone of contention was the one-member equalisation committee which is supposed to submit its report within six months.

        "We had told him clearly that if you are making a committee then it should be a five-member committee which would have three ex-servicemen as members and one serving member from the defence services. The fifth member should be recommended by the central government," he said.

      Business Affairs 

      Telephonics to hike stake in defence JV with Mahindra to 49%
      • Mahindra Group chairman and MD Anand MahindraThe Mahindra group on Friday said Telephonics Corporation, USA, will increase its stake in their defence joint venture firm Mahindra Telephonics Integrated Systems (MTIS) to 49 per cent.
        "Mahindra Telephonics Integrated Systems (MTIS) recently received approval on August 14, 2015, from the Foreign Investment Promotion Board of India (FIPB) for Telephonics Corporation to increase its stake in MTIS from 26 per cent to 49 per cent. Steps are being taken by both the partners to implement the transaction," MTIS said in a statement.
        The Mahindra group and Telephonics Corporation (USA), a subsidiary of Griffon Corporation, formed the joint venture MTIS in March 2013.
        "Telephonics is excited about the growth prospects for the aerospace and defence electronics markets in India. We are committed to our joint venture, MTIS, which is crucial to our continued efforts to expand and service this key growth market with our proven mission critical radar and electronic communications products," Telephonics Corporation President and CEO Joseph Battaglia said.
        MTIS has a production facility near Faridabad in Haryana where it currently manufactures air-borne weather radars systems.

        Telcos should compensate users for call drops, proposes TRAI
        • Telcos should compensate users for call drops, proposes TRAIPlagued by the vexed problem of call drops, telecom regulator TRAI on Friday proposed that service providers should compensate mobile subscribers for call drops and poor quality of services.
          The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) on Friday floated a consultation paper seeking public view on the proposal. It appears that a consumer relief measure against call drops would be effective only if it reaches the affected consumers.
          These measures could extend from not charging the consumers for dropped calls to compensating them by crediting talk-time or amounts in their accounts, the TRAI paper said.
          The regulator proposed that any call which gets dropped within five seconds would not be charged, and in case a call gets dropped any time after five seconds, the last pulse of the call should not be included for the purpose of charging.
          TRAI has come out with the paper more than a week after Prime Minister Narendra Modi expressed concerns on call drop problem being faced by consumers across country. Call drop is a problem faced by consumers so they should be directly compensated, TRAI Chairman RS Sharma told PTI.
          At present, TRAI levies penalty on telecom operators for failing to meet service quality benchmarks. As per the rule, call drop should not be more than 2 per cent of all calls made on a network in a telecom service area.
          The consumers seem to be asking a simple question: Having paid for the service, why should I be denied a reasonable call quality, TRAI said in the consultation paper.
          In the past one year, consumers at various fora have raised the issue of call drops, complaining that their experience of making voice calls has deteriorated, TRAI said.
          The issue of too frequent call drops seems to have annoyed not only the consumers and businesses, but also has become a major cause of concern for policymakers and Parliamentarians, TRAI said. The call drop problem during peak hours in one year has almost doubled, as per a report of the regulator. Last date for submitting comments on the paper is September 28. 

            Monsoon starts withdrawing from northwest region: IMD
            • June-September monsoon has started withdrawing from the north-western region, the weather department said on Friday, which could increase the rainfall deficit for the season.
              The monsoon usually starts withdrawing in the first week of September.
              "The southwest monsoon has withdrawn from western parts of Rajasthan," the India Meteorological Department said.
              The conditions are favourable for further withdrawal of the monsoon from northwest India in the next three-four days, it said.
              The July-September rains irrigate nearly half of India's farmlands, bringing relief to millions of poor farmers who till small plots of land to sustain their families.
              The country has so far received 13 percent lower rainfall than normal in the current monsoon season.
              Though rainfall was scanty last year too, a late surge delayed the retreat by about 15 days and left enough moisture for farmers to start planting wheat and rapeseed from October.

            ONGC buys 15 per cent stake in Rosneft's Vankor oil field for $1.35 bn
            • ONGC buys 15% stake in Russia's Vankor oil field for $1.35 bnState-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) has bought a 15 per cent stake in Russia's second- largest oil field from Rosneft for about $1.35 billion.
              ONGC Videsh Ltd, the overseas investment arm of the state explorer, signed agreements in Moscow to buy 15 per cent stake in Vankorneft, the developer of the Vankor oil and gas condensate field in Turukhansky district of Krasnoyak Territory in Russia.
              The field, which has recoverable reserves of 2.5 billion barrels, will give OVL 3.3 million tonnes per annum of oil production.

              OVL in a statement said it "has signed definitive agreements to acquire up to 15 per cent shares in CSJC Vankorneft, a company organised under the law of Russian Federation which is the owner of Vankor Field and North Vankor licence."
              Rosneft, Russia's national oil company, holds 100 per cent stake in Vankorneft. The acquisition is subject to relevant board, government and regulatory approvals and is expected to be completed by 2016-mid, it said.
              While both OVL and Rosneft did not give value of the deal, a source privy to the transaction said OVL will pay $1.268 billion.
              This will be the fourth biggest acquisition by OVL. It had in 2013 paid $4.125 billion for a 16 per cent stake in Mozambique's offshore Rovuma Area 1, which holds as much as 75 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves.
              In 2009, it had bought Russia-focused Imperial Energy for $2.1 billion. Prior to that, it had in 2001 paid $1.7 billion for a 20 per cent interest in the Sakhalin-1 oil and gas field off Russia's far eastern coast.
              The source said OVL can borrow money from its parent ONGC or go the market for financing the acquisition. "It can be a mix of both."
              "Vankor is Rosneft's (and Russia's) second largest field by production and accounts for 4 per cent of Russian production. The daily production from the field is around 442,000 barrels per day of crude oil on an average with OVL's share of daily oil production at about 66,000," OVL said.
              The agreement to buy stake in Vankor was signed by the Chairman of Rosneft Management Board Igor Sechin and OVL Managing Director Narendra Verma in Vladivostok, in Russia's Far East.
              Upon completion of the deal, OVL will have two seats on the board of Vankorneft, Rosneft said.
              Rosneft, whose stake in the project will come down to 85 per cent, will however keep full control of the general infrastructure of Vankor cluster, including oil pipeline Vankor-Purpe.

              Glenmark Pharmaceuticals receives USFDA nod for fungal infections treatment drug
              • Glenmark receives USFDA nod for fungal infections treatment drugGlenmark Pharmaceuticals said on Friday it has received final approval from the US health regulator for Voriconazole Tablets, used to treat fungal infections.
                "Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA has been granted final approval by the US Food & Drug Administration (USFDA) for Voriconazole Tablets, the therapeutic equivalent to Vfend tablets," Glenmark said in a BSE filing.
                The approval has been granted for tablets in 50 mg and 200 mg strengths.
                Citing IMS Health sales data, Glenmark said, for the 12 months to July 2015, Vfend market achieved annual sales of around $91.4 million.
                The company's current portfolio consists of 102 products authorised for distribution in the US marketplace and 63 Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDA) pending approval with the USFDA.
                Shares of Glenmark Pharmaceuticals were trading at Rs 1,019.40 apiece in the morning trade on the BSE, down 4.44 per cent from its previous close.

                  General Awareness


                    • 1. IFSC in a cheque means:
                      a) Indian Financial System Code
                      b) It has 11 digits alpha numeric
                      c) First 4 digits represent Bank Name
                      d) This code is used in remitting funds through RTGS and NEFT
                      e) All the above

                      2. "Hundi" is a
                      a) Draft
                      b) Cheque
                      c) Bill of exchange
                      d) Promissory note
                      e) None of these

                      3. Banking Industry has been declared as public utility service for purpose of
                      a) Negotiable Instruments ACT, 1881
                      b) Reserve bank of India Act, 1934
                      c) Banking regulation Act, 1949
                      d) Industrial Disputes Act
                      e) None of these

                      4. Bank would prefer to mobilize deposits under Savings Bank accounts, because:
                      a) Account holders will be motivated to save since savings account offer interest also
                      b) It is a low cost deposit for the bank and banks can profitably deploy such funds
                      c) Banks want to inculcate the savings habit among the public
                      d) All of the above
                      e) None of the above

                      5. Basic Objective of SEBI is/are:
                      a) To promote the interests of investors in securities
                      b) To promote the development of Securities Market
                      c) To regulate the securities market
                      d) To protect the interest of the investors to improve the stock market investments
                      e) All of the above

                      6. Customer Day in the bank is on and customers are allowed to meet the top officials of the bank on this day in every month:
                      a) 5th
                      b) 10th
                      c) 15th
                      d) 30th
                      e) Any of the above dates

                      7. "Allonge" is
                      a) A piece of paper for making endorsements
                      b) A piece of paper attached to a negotiable instrument for making available more space for further endorsements
                      c) Both a and b
                      d) Duplicate DD issued to a customer
                      e) Bill payable after sight

                      8. NEFT is useful because:
                      a) The remitter need not send the physical cheque or Demand Draft to the beneficiary.
                      b) The beneficiary need not visit his/ her bank for depositing the paper instruments
                      c) The beneficiary need not be apprehensive of loss/ theft of physical instruments or the likelihood of fraudulent encashment thereof
                      d) Cost effective
                      e) All the above

                      9. Mutual Fund Scheme that operates continuously without any limit entry for subscriptions and redemptions is:
                      a) Fixed Income
                      b) Specific Fund
                      c) Close Ended
                      d) Open Ended
                      e) Mixed Fund

                      10. PAN number is required for all transactions above:
                      a) Rs. 25,000
                      b) Rs. 50,000
                      c) Rs. 1 lakh
                      d) Rs. 10 lakh
                      e) No such restriction

                      11. Banking Ombudsman services are available to:
                      a) All Scheduled Commercial Banks
                      b) Regional Rural Banks
                      c) Scheduled Primary Co-operative Banks
                      d) Only a & c
                      e) All the above

                      12. An asset, including a leased asset, becomes non-performing when:
                      a) It ceases to generate income for the bank
                      b) A performance Guarantee issued by the bank on behalf of the borrower is invoked
                      c) It is rendered useless due to wear and tear or its becoming obsolete
                      d) The borrower dies
                      e) None of the above

                      13. Counter guarantee means a guarantee obtained:
                      a) By bank from customers on whose behalf the banks have to issue guarantees in favour of third parties, such as government department, Public bodies, Corporations etc.
                      b) By banks from ECGC covering export risk
                      c) By banks from the beneficiary of the guarantee in whose favour the guarantee is to be issued
                      d) A guarantee issued to the guarantor
                      e) None of the above

                      14. Which of the following statements is correct about banks?
                      a) Banks cannot accept demand and time deposits from public.
                      b) Banks can accept only time deposits from public.
                      c) Banks can accept both demand and time deposits from public.
                      d) Banks can accept demand and time deposits only from government.
                      e) None of the above

                      15. The RBI issued the following guidelines for effective Asset Liability Management System
                      a) Bank should set up an internal Asset Liability Committee
                      b) The committee should be headed by CMD or ED
                      c) The Management committee of the Board should oversee implementation of the system
                      d) Decision of ALCO is to be implemented in letter and spirit
                      e) All of the above

                      16. The major responsibilities of Asset Liability Committee are
                      a) Product pricing for deposits and advances
                      b) The level of maturity profile and mix of the incremental assets and liabilities
                      c) The committee should also review the 3 results and progress of implementation
                      d) All of the above
                      e) None of the above

                      17. What is "NIKKET"
                      a) Share price Index of Tokyo share market
                      b) Name of Japanese central bank
                      c) Japanese name of the country's planning commission
                      d) Foreign Exchange market of Japan
                      e) Only a & d

                      18. Asia's oldest stock exchange which completed 140 years of operations on 2015 July 9?
                      a) NSE
                      b) Hyderabad Stock Exchange
                      c) BSE
                      d) Madras Stock Exchange
                      e) None of these

                      19. The bank allowed by the FIPB to raise its FII cap to 55% recently:
                      a) ICICI Bank
                      b) Andhra Bank
                      c) Bank Of Maharastra
                      d) Kotak Mahindra Bank
                      e) Bank Of Baroda

                      20. Gilt - Edged Market refers to:
                      a) The market for government
                      b) Semi-government securities
                      c) It carries fixed rates of interest
                      d) Most secured investment
                      e) All the above

                      21. Which of the following terms is not used in the world of finance, banking and insurance?
                      a) Devaluation
                      b) Amnesty
                      c) Hard currency
                      d) Preference share
                      e) None of the above

                      22. Which of the following organizations/ agencies frame the Monetary and Credit Policy which is followed by all banks in India?
                      a) Indian Bank's Association
                      b) Reserve Bank of India
                      c) Securities & Exchange Board of India
                      d) Government of India
                      e) Sinking fund

                      23. Upper limit prescribed for RTGS transaction is:
                      a) 1 lakh
                      b) 2 lakhs
                      c) 5 lakhs
                      d) 50 lakhs
                      e) No upper limit is prescribed

                      24. Which of the following bank launched "Project Tatkal" to expedite home loan applications?
                      a) SBH
                      b) SBI
                      c) Axis Bank
                      d) HDFC Bank
                      e) Union Bank Of India

                      25. Taking banking technology to the common man is the tagline of:
                      a) Indian Overseas Bank
                      b) ICICI
                      c) Union Bank of India
                      d) Indian Bank
                      e) State Bank of India

                      1) e 2) c 3) d 4) d 5) e 6) c 7) b 8) e 9) d 10) b
                      11) e 12) a 13) a 14) c 15) e 16) d 17) a 18) c 19) d 20) e
                      21) b 22) b 23) e 24) b 25) d

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