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Current Affairs - 12 September 2018

General Affairs 

Debt-Ridden Farmer Allegedly Commits Suicide In Maharashtra Farm
  • A 55-year-old debt-ridden farmer allegedly committed suicide by consuming pesticide at his farm in Latur district in Maharashtra, police said Tuesday.
    The deceased, Ashok Zatinga Gaikwad, had consumed pesticide on September 5 in Usturi village in Nilanga tehsil, following which he was admitted to a state-run hospital in Latur, an official said.

    However, Gaikwad died during treatment Monday evening, the official added.

    According to police, he had not been able to repay the loan which he had borrowed from private money lenders, due to which the latter were harassing him.

    Police have registered an accidental death report (ADR) in this case and a probe in underway, the official said.

Centre To Decide Compensation To UP, Maharashtra For 2017 Crop Damage
  • A high-level committee, headed by Home Minister Rajnath Singh, will decide on Wednesday the compensation to be given to Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra where crops were damaged due to natural calamities in 2017, officials said.

    The panel, however, will not consider on the relief package to be given to Kerala, which was recently hit by heavy rains and floods, the worst in a century, as a detailed review on the damages is yet to be made.

    The high-level committee will take a decision on the compensation to be given to Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra where Rabi crops were damaged last year, a home ministry official said on Tuesday.

    Apart from the home minister, the other two members of the committee are Finance Minister Arun Jaitley and Agriculture Minister Radha Mohan Singh. 

    Top officials of the home, finance and agriculture ministries will also take part in the meeting.

    The damages caused by rains and floods this year in Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Assam, Uttarakhand, Odisha and Nagaland will not be discussed as detailed reports on the situation are yet to be sent by the states.

    After the respective state governments send the report on the damages caused by the natural calamities, an inter-ministerial team will visit each of the states, and then present the facts before the committee, which will then take a decision on relief packages, another official said.

    Over 1,400 people, including 488 in Kerala, lost their lives due to rains, floods and landslides in 10 states in the monsoon season  so far, according to the home ministry.

    As many as 254 people have died in Uttar Pradesh, 210 in West Bengal, 170 in Karnataka, 139 in Maharashtra, 52 in Gujarat, 50 in Assam, 37 in Uttarakhand, 29 in Odisha and 11 in Nagaland.

    Forty-three people are missing -- 15 in Kerala, 14 in Uttar Pradesh, five in West Bengal, six in Uttarakhand and three in Karnataka -- while 386 were injured in rain-related incidents in 10 states, the home ministry said.

    Rains and floods have hit 30 districts in Odisha, 26 districts in Maharashtra, 25 in Assam, 23 each in Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, 14 in Kerala, 13 in Uttarakhand, 11 each in Karnataka and Nagaland and 10 in Gujarat.  

Election Panel Notice To AAP Mentions Hawala Money, Fudged Records
  • The Election Commission has issued a notice to Arvind Kejriwal's Aam Aadmi Party, asking them to explain discrepancies in donations filed by the party during the financial year 2014-15. The Commission has asked the party to explain the matter within 20 days, failing which, action could be taken against it. Under the rules, the Commission can suspend or withdraw recognition of a political party.

    AAP said the election commission's notice is "poor interpretation" of basic accounting practices. The Central agencies, it said, were biased and that it was apprehensive of possible "harassment".

    The letter from the Commission said AAP has taken donations from hawala operators to the tune of Rs. 2 crore, which were shown as "voluntary donations". The party, the Commission said, also has not accounted for donations worth Rs. 13.16 crore.

    In February 2015, AAP got clean chit from the Centre in another case that accused it of receiving illegal foreign funding.

    But in February last year, the Income Tax department had flagged donation discrepancies against AAP. In a letter to the Election Commission, the department said there were discrepancies in the details of donations in two financial years -- 2013-14 and 2014-15  

    The Election Commission, in its letter, said the party has not observed transparency guidelines and the disclosure on its official website is incorrect.

    The notice said in the original contribution report for 2014-15 submitted by the party, "contains a list of 2,696 donors with the total donations amounting to Rs. 37,45,44,618 and the revised contribution report shows the total amount as Rs. 37,60,62,631 received from 8,264 donors".

    The poll commission said this year, a report from the office of the chairman of the Central Board of Direct Taxes spoke of "concealment of donations received by the AAP" during Financial Year 2014-15.

    In a statement, AAP treasurer and lawmaker ND Gupta said, "This notice is based on poor interpretation of basic accounting practices by the Central Board of Direct Taxes(CBDT)".

    Citing some anomalies in the commission's notice, he said it appeared to have "copy-pasted and referred grossly incorrect and biased observations" of income tax department. Even bank transfers between different state units of the party have also been treated as fresh donations, Mr Gupta said.

Plea Against Rising Fuel Prices Filed In Delhi High Court
  • A public interest litigation (PIL) was moved in the Delhi High Court today against the daily change in the rates of petrol and diesel in the country.
    The plea by Puja Mahajan, a resident of Delhi, sought directions to the central government to treat petrol and diesel as "essential commodities" and fix a "fair price" for the petroleum products.

    The PIL was mentioned before a bench of Chief Justice Rajendra Menon and justice V K Rao and has been listed for hearing tomorrow.

    The petition, filed through advocate A Maitri, alleged that the government had "indirectly given implied consent" to the oil manufacturing companies (OMCs) to hike the petrol and diesel prices at their own "whims and fancies".

    It claimed that the implied consent was evident from the lack of revision in fuel prices for around 22 days in the run-up to the Karnataka Assembly polls.

    The petition also alleged that the government was spreading "misleading information" by connecting the rising fuel prices here with the global increase in the rate of crude oil as the cost of petrol and diesel did not go down when crude was cheaper than now.

    In July, the petitioner had said that she had moved a similar plea, which the court had disposed of, by asking the Centre to treat it as a representation and take a decision. However, since the government had not taken a decision till date on her representation, she filed the present petition, the plea said.

PM Modi Announces Hike In Incentives Of Asha, Anganwadi Workers
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi today announced a hike in monthly honorarium of thousands of Asha and Anganwadi workers, from October.
    In addition, all accredited social health activists (Asha) will be brought under the coverage of various social security schemes and provided free insurance cover under Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana and Prime Minister Suraksha Bima Yojana.

    The social health activists will not have to pay any premium for the insurance coverage and will get Rs. 4 lakh in case of any untoward incident, the prime minister announced during a video interaction with Asha, ANM (auxiliary nurse midwife) and Anganwadi workers from across the country.

    He said the revised incentive will come into effect from October and it will reflect in their salaries from November onwards, which would be a Diwali gift for them.

    Those who drew an honorarium of Rs. 3,000 will from now on get Rs. 4,500 and those getting Rs. 2,200 will get Rs. 3,500, he said.
    The honorarium of Anganwadi helpers will be hiked from Rs. 1,500 to Rs. 2,500, he said. These are the routine incentives given by the Centre to Asha and Anganwadi workers. The state governments also give them a separate incentive.

    Asha and Anganwadi workers are playing a critical role in strengthening the foundation of the country, ensuring health and wellbeing of the newborn, ensuring nutritional standards and maintaining cleanliness, he said.

    PM Modi also announced that Anganwadi workers and helpers using techniques such as common application software (ICDS-CAS) would get additional incentives. The incentives, ranging from Rs. 250 to Rs. 500, would be based on performance.

    He said the government's flagship health insurance programme Ayushman Bharat will be launched from Jharkhand on September 23, and the beneficiaries have already been identified.

    Karishma, a newborn in Karnal district in Haryana, is the first beneficiary under this scheme, he said.

    During his interaction, the prime minister laid emphasis on redoubling efforts to reduce anaemia-related illness in the country by three times, the reduction rate of which currently stands at only one per cent.

    September is being devoted to nutrition and "Poshan Maah" aims to reach every household in the country with the message of the importance of optimum nutrition.

    PM Modi appreciated their efforts to work together, to use innovative means and technology, to improve the delivery of health and nutrition services and achieve the goal of the 'POSHAN Abhiyan' (nutrition mission).

Business Affairs

Elections, crop loan waivers and flood relief may see states trip on fiscal consolidation in FY19: ICRA
  • Rating agency ICRA has expressed doubts over the states' ability to tread the budgeted fiscal consolidation path during the current financial year (FY2019). Funding of crop loan waivers, election-related spending and flood relief are some of the expenditures that may result in states overshooting their budgeted expenditure, ICRA points out. However, the adverse impact will be minimized if the states are able to generate higher-than-budgeted revenues because of the recent amendments related to IGST and GST compensation cess, and a back-ended pickup in headline SGST collections, it says.

    "A rise in revenue expenditure beyond the budgeted levels, led by the funding of crop loan waivers, election-related spending and flood relief, may lead to fiscal slippage for some of the states, unless their capital spending is curtailed below, and/or their revenue receipts are enhanced above the level budgeted for FY2019," Jayanta Roy, Group Head - Corporate Sector Rating, ICRA states.

    The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has highlighted that the fiscal deficit of all 29 Indian states would decline to 2.6 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) as per their FY2019 Budget Estimates (BE), from 3.1 per cent of GDP as per their FY2018 Revised Estimates (RE). ICRA's in-depth study of the FY2019 budgets of nine states, accounting for approximately 62 per cent of the combined gross state domestic product (GSDP) of all 29 states (in FY2017), estimates that their fiscal deficit is budgeted to decline to 2.5 per cent of GSDP in FY2019 BE from 2.6 per cent of GSDP in FY2018 RE.

    Roy says that a reduction in the capital spending would be an unfavourable outcome, which may impair the quality of expenditure.

    According to ICRA, with legislative elections likely to be held in FY2019 and FY2020 in three out of the nine states in the sample (and in 12 out of the total 29 Indian states), there is a risk of announcement of new schemes or an increase in the allocation of the existing welfare-oriented schemes, in line with the trend observed of late. Furthermore, unforeseen expenditure on flood relief in states such as Kerala and Karnataka, which may not be fully offset by higher grants or other revenue mobilisation measures, could exert pressure on their fiscal balances.

    So far in FY2019, the amount required to be released to the states as GST compensation has been limited to Rs. 3,900 crore for April-May 2018 and Rs. 14,930 crore for June-July 2018. Additionally, the amount collected as GST compensation cess has exceeded the compensation funds released to the states.

    "As per the GST (Compensation to States) Amendment Bill, 2018, 50 per cent of the unutilised amount lying in the Compensation Fund at any point in a financial year during the transition period, shall be distributed amongst the states. Moreover, the recently passed IGST (Amendment) Bill, 2018 provides that any unsettled amount of IGST shall be divided equally between the Centre and the states. These changes are likely to ease the cash flows of the state governments and boost their revenues, thereby aiding their fiscal consolidation efforts," Roy said.

Big data breach! Aadhaar software hack raises major security concerns
  • Blowing the lid off what could possibly be one of the biggest data breaches of unique identity database of over a billion Indians, a report by Huffpost on Tuesday claimed that UIDAI' database has been compromised by a software patch that disables critical security features of the software used to enrol new Aadhaar users.

    What is Aadhaar software hack?

    According to the report, a software patch, which can be bought for as little as Rs 2,500, allows unauthorised persons, based anywhere in the world, to generate Aadhaar numbers.

    A patch is a set of code that is used to change a computer program or update, fix, or improve it. This includes fixing bugs. However, it can also be used to introduce vulnerabilities. The report claimed that the Aadhaar software patch allowed users to bypass critical security features such as biometric authentication of enrolment operators to generate unauthorised Aadhaar numbers.

    Why is it a security risk?

    The report said that Aadhaar patch disables the enrolment software's GPS security feature which is used to identify the location of enrolment centres. Turning off GPS would allow anyone to use the software to enrol users from anywhere in the world.

    How the software patch makes Aadhaar vulnerable to ghost entries?

    While the government has trumpeted weeding out of illegal beneficiaries from various central schemes as one of the major successes of Aadhaar, the latest revelations may deliver a body blow to Centre's tall claims.

    The report claims that the patch reduces the sensitivity of the enrolment software's iris-recognition system, making it easier to spoof the software with a photograph of a registered operator, rather than requiring the operator to be present in person.

    If this is true, then the software patch could be used to create ghost entries into Aadhaar database. The new IDs created in UIDAI may also be misused to siphon off rations meant for poor.

    How did the hack happen?

    In 2010, the UIDAI allowed private agencies to enrol users to the Aadhaar system in order to speed up enrolments. In the same year, Bengaluru-based Mindtree won a contract to develop an official, standardised enrolment software - called the Enrolment Client Multi-Platforma  (ECMP )- that would be installed onto the thousands of computers maintained by these private operators.

    Instead of using a web-based system in which all software would be installed on the UIDAI's own servers and enrolment operators would have a user name and password to access the system, softwares were installed on each enrolment computer.

    According to the report, B. Regunath, a software architect who led the team at Mindtree that worked on the project, said a web-based enrolment software for Aadhaar was not practical at the time because many parts of the country had very poor Internet connectivity.

    To make data security foolproof, more features were added to the software that was used by Aadhaar enrolment operators. They were required to log in to the software by first providing their own fingerprint or iris scan. Also, a GPS device was attached to verify the location.

    However, the report claimed that in early 2017, these security features were bypassed by a software hack. There is also a video on YouTube which offers a step-by-step guide to bypass these security features.

    UIDAI's response

    Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) has dismissed the claims as completely baseless. Refuting the allegations, UIDAI said no operator can make or update Aadhaar unless an individual gives biometrics details.

    The UIDAI said that it matches all the biometric - 10 fingerprints and both iris - of a resident enrolling for Aadhaar with the biometrics of all Aadhaar holders before issuing an Aadhaar, and so the claims of introducing information into Aadhaar database were "completely unfounded".

Tata Motors' JLR chief issues 'no-deal' Brexit warning
  • Tata Motors-owned Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) on Tuesday issued a warning to the UK government of massive losses if Britain was to leave the European Union (EU) with no deal over its future trading relationship with the economic bloc.

    JLR CEO Ralf Speth, who was speaking at the Zero Emission Vehicle Summit in Birmingham, said that fears of a so-called "no-deal" Brexit and lack of clarity over Britain's post-Brexit plans threatens the UK-based luxury carmaker's entire operational set up.

    "Just one part missing could mean stopping production at a cost of 60 million pounds a day. That is a huge risk. We depend on free, frictionless, seamless logistics," he said.

    Speth reiterated a previous warning over a hard Brexit scenario hitting the Tata Group-owned company's annual profits by over 1.2 billion pounds, which might even force its exit from the UK.

    "At the end of the day we are British. We are an absolutely British company and we want to stay here," he said.

    JLR is among a number of companies participating at the Zero Emission Vehicle Summit, during which Prime Minister Theresa May announced a 106-million-pound grant to support research and development in green vehicles, new batteries and low carbon technology.

    Speth said electric and autonomous vehicles represented a "huge opportunity" but stressed that the UK government must collaborate more closely with business on the sector.

    Back in July, the JLR CEO had issued a similar statement warning the UK government against a "bad Brexit deal". The UK's largest carmaker has witnessed a complete turnaround in its fortunes since Tata Motors acquired the traditional British brands from Ford 10 years ago.

    Speth had highlighted that under Indian ownership, the company has spent around 50 billion pounds in the UK in the past five years, with plans for a further 80 billion pounds in the next five. However, all that could be put in "jeopardy" with a bad deal with the EU as Britain prepares to exit the 27-member economic bloc in March next year.

    At the beginning of the year, JLR had said it would cut production at its plant in Halewood, Merseyside, where it builds three of its Range Rover models. In April, it said that it would not renew the contracts for 1,000 temporary workers at its operation at Solihull in the West Midlands region of England.

    But the company had also revealed plans to invest in the Solihull site to allow it to build its new Range Rover models, some of which will be electric-powered, from 2020.

    In June, JLR said it would shift production of its Land Rover Discovery SUV to a new plant in Slovakia, potentially leading to some job losses in the UK.

    The company's repeated Brexit interventions come in the wake of similar statements by other manufacturing giants like BMW and Airbus, warning against a "no-deal" Brexit.

Raghuram Rajan red-flags Mudra scheme loans as possible source of next banking crisis
  • Raghuram Rajan's claim to fame is not that he's a former RBI governor. He was well-known long before that as the person who had predicted the global financial crisis of 2008, three years in advance. So if he red-flags another possible crisis in the making, as he is now, one ought to sit up and take notice.

    In his 17-page note to the Lok Sabha Committee on Estimates, headed by BJP veteran Murli Manohar Joshi, Rajan highlighted that the "Government should focus on sources of the next crisis, not just the last one. In particular, government should refrain from setting ambitious credit targets or waiving loans".

    Rajan, who is currently the Katherine Dusak Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at The University of Chicago Booth School of Business, explained that credit targets are sometimes achieved by "abandoning appropriate due diligence", which only creates a conducive environment for future non-productive assets (NPAs).

    Rajan elaborated that loans under the government's popular flagship scheme Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana and the Kisan Credit Card needed to be examined "more closely" for potential credit risk. "The Credit Guarantee Scheme for MSME (CGTMSE) run by SIDBI [Small Industries Development Bank of India] is a growing contingent liability and needs to be examined with urgency," he added.

    Significantly, in June, a joint study by SIDBI and credit bureau TransUnion CIBIL, had revealed that while MSME NPA rates had remained stable between March 2017 and March 2018, there was a looming threat. "The future NPA in the segment may be driven by Rs 11,000 crores exposure, which are currently tagged as 'standard' but belongs to entities at least one or more exposures of which are tagged as NPA by other banks or credit institutions," read the report. "Additionally, as of 31st Mar'18, there is a system-wide exposure of Rs 1,20,000 crores belonging to entities with CIBIL MSME Rank (CMR) between CMR-7 and CMR-10...These high-risk exposures are expected to add Rs 16,000 crores in NPA by Mar'19."

    Rajan also red-flagged farm loan waivers, which a recent Bank of America Merrill Lynch report suggested is likely to double to $40 billion by the 2019 general elections. "Loan waivers, as RBI has repeatedly argued, vitiate the credit culture, and stress the budgets of the waiving state or central government. They are poorly targeted, and eventually reduce the flow of credit," said Rajan. "Agriculture needs serious attention, but not through loan waivers. An all-party agreement to this effect would be in the nation's interest, especially given the impending elections."

    Rajan's letter came in response to Estimates Committee's request for a briefing on the banking sector's mounting non-performing assets (NPAs). His warnings come at a time the Indian banking is reeling under an unprecedented bad loans problem. The NPAs of the 38 listed banks collectively crossed Rs 10.17 lakh crore in the fourth quarter of the last fiscal, with the 21 public sector banks (PSBs) accounting for the bulk of it. Worse yet, in a written answer to the Rajya Sabha in end-March, Minister of State for Finance Shiv Pratap Shukla had admitted that the PSBs had collectively written-off over Rs 1,154 crore in NPAs in the last fiscal till December 31, which was a 103% jump from the amount written off in 2016-17.

Sensex tumbles 509 points, Nifty ends below 11,300 level; Tata Steel, PowerGrid, Hero MotoCorp top losers
  • The market extended losses for the second continuous session this week amid a falling rupee, rising crude oil prices, widening current account deficit and global trade tensions which dampened investor sentiment.  While the Sensex closed 509 points or 1.34% lower at 37,413, Nifty fell 150 points or 1.32% to 11,287 level.

    The Sensex has seen over 1% fall in the second straight session today for first time since February 2016. On Monday, the Sensex closed 467 points or 1.22% lower at 37,922, the Nifty fell 151 points or 1.30% to 11,438 level.

    Tata Steel (3.46%), PowerGrid (3.21%) and Hero MotoCorp (3.09%)  were the top Sensex losers. Of 30 Sensex stocks, 25 closed lower.

    Coal India (1.73%) was the top Sensex gainer followed by NTPC and Infosys rising 0.36% and 0.31%, respectively.

    India's current account deficit (CAD) widened to $15.8 billion, which is around 2.4 per cent of the country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), for the quarter ended June as compared with $15 billion in the same quarter a year before, according to data announced on Friday. The weakening rupee against the US dollar and high crude oil prices in the international market led to a rise in current account deficit in the first quarter.
    The rupee sinking to a fresh record low of 72.74 also gave an upper hand to the bears. The currency fell 29 paise in late afternoon trade on rising dollar as crude oil prices went past the $78 a barrel mark.

     "The market will continue to remain under pressure for some time, likely until the end of the week, as it is already over-stretched," RK Gupta, managing director at Taurus Asset Management told Reuters.

    "There is fear that rising crude prices, weakening of the rupee will cause inflation to go up and in that case, RBI (Reserve Bank of India) is bound to raise interest rates by 25 bps (basis points) in the October meeting."

    Some investors may choose to book profit before the second-quarter advance tax payment deadline, and markets may also see correction due to impending state elections in four states in November, Gupta said.

    While the BSE mid cap index fell 1.36% or 221 points to 16006.49, the BSE small cap index lost 228 points to 16,488 level.

    Market breadth was negative with 875 stocks closing higher compared with 1,840 ending lower on the BSE. 152 stocks were unchanged.

    All 19 sectoral indices ended in the red with BSE consumer durables index losing 2.47% or 510 points to 20, 144.04 level.

    Global markets
    Major global stock markets were mostly lower on Tuesday after Wall Street's gains as investors waited for a new US tariff hike in a trade battle with China.

    The trade tensions between the US and China kept global markets in volatile zone. The Trump administration was due to announce a decision shortly on whether to go ahead with 25 percent tariffs on $200 billion of Chinese imports in a dispute over Beijing's technology policy. The two sides already have raised duties on $50 billion of each other's goods.

    In early trading, Germany's DAX lost 0.1 percent to 11,971.94 and London's FTSE 100 fell 0.3 percent to 7,258.47. France's CAC 40 was little-changed at 5,273.25. On Monday, the CAC 40 added 0.3 percent, the DAX rose 0.2 percent and the FTSE 100 was unchanged. On Wall Street, futures for the Standard & Poor's 500 index and Dow Jones industrial average were little-changed.

    The Shanghai Composite Index retreated 0.2 percent to 2,664.80 and Hong Kong's Hang Seng lost 0.7 percent to 26,422.55. Tokyo's Nikkei 225 advanced 1.3 percent to 22,664.69 while Seoul's Kospi declined 0.2 percent to 2,283.20. Sydney's S&P-ASX 200 added 0.6 percent to 6,179.70 and India's Sensex shed 0.4 percent to 37,764.80. Benchmarks in Taiwan and New Zealand gained while Southeast Asian markets declined.

General Awareness

    Animal Welfare Board of India
    • What to study?

      For Prelims: About AWBI.
      For Mains: Issues related to the welfare of animals in India.

      Context: Union Women and Child Development Minister Maneka Gandhi has locked horns with the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI), accusing it of being lax in enforcement of rules that specify how wild animals can be depicted in films and television programmes.

      What’s the issue?

      The minister has listed “blatant errors” by the AWBI subcommittee that screens applications from film-makers. She alleged that the committee did not seek details of the species being used, which were required to determine whether they were protected. It had even allowed their depiction in scenes that could promote cruelty to animals. This is against the Supreme Court’s orders.

      About Animal Welfare Board of India:

      Established in 1962 under Section 4 of The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act,1960, the Animal Welfare Board of India is a statutory advisory body advising the Government of India on animal welfare laws, and promotes animal welfare in the country of India. Animal Welfare Board of India was started under the stewardship of Late Smt. Rukmini Devi Arundale, well known humanitarian.

      The Board was initially within the jurisdiction of the Government of India’s Ministry of Food and Agriculture. In 1990, the subject of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was transferred to the Ministry of Environment and Forests, where it now resides.
      The Board consists of 28 Members, who serve for a period of 3 years.
      It works to ensure that animal welfare laws in the country are followed and provides grants to Animal Welfare Organisations. The Board oversees Animal Welfare Organisations (AWOs) by granting recognition to them if they meet its guidelines.

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