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Current Affairs - 22 July 2018

General Affairs 

Congress Faces No-Trust Among Citizens: Maharashtra Chief Minister
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi ripped apart the "misinformation" campaign of the opposition during his speech ahead of the voting on a no-confidence motion that was comprehensively defeated in the Lok Sabha, said Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis today.
    The Congress, the main opposition party which voted in favour of the TDP-sponsored motion last night, has now lost trust of people, he said.

    "Modiji has ripped apart the misinformation campaign of the Congress and its allies. The Prime Minister has stated facts, in which the nation believes in. This was a no-confidence motion which was turned down by an overwhelming majority," Mr Fadnavis told PTI.

    "The fact is that outside Parliament too, the trust vote is only with the Modi government and the Congress now faces no-trust among citizens," the chief minister said.

    The BJP chief minister's reaction comes a day after the no-confidence motion against the Narendra Modi government was decisively defeated after an acrimonious debate in the Lok Sabha that witnessed political gamesmanship.

    Congress president Rahul Gandhi created a flutter when, after finishing his speech, he walked towards PM Modi's seat and hugged him. The Prime Minister later hit back, saying Mr Gandhi was in a hurry to unseat him and grab his chair.

    During his speech, PM Modi listed achievements of his four-year-old government and targeted opposition parties, especially the Congress.

    A total of 325 lawmakers opposed, while 126 lawmakers supported the no-trust motion moved by the TDP, a former BJP ally, during the division after a marathon 12-hour debate.

    The victory of the BJP-led NDA government was not unexpected, but the intense debate gave an opportunity to the leaders of rival parties to set the agenda for the 2019 Lok Sabha polls.

    The no-trust motion was the first after PM Modi assumed office in May 2014 and less than a year before the next general elections.

Rajnath Singh Starts "Student Police Cadet" Project In Gurugram
  • Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh on Saturday rolled out the 'Student Police Cadet' (SPC) programme, under which high school students across the country will be taught to become much more responsible citizens.
    Speaking at the formal launch at the Tau Devi Lal Stadium, Mr Singh said that the SPC programme, for students of classes 8 and 9, will be implemented across the country with a vision for citizens to respect and follow laws willingly, practice responsible behaviour towards others, demonstrate empathy for weaker sections of society, and participate in tackling community issues.

    A sum of Rs. 67 crore had been sanctioned to states for the programme's implementation and each school would get Rs. 50,000 for educational aids, training and contingency for the programme, to be carried out on pilot basis in all states and union territories.

    Rajnath Singh said that the venture aims to unlock the potential of India's youth and make them capable of becoming social leaders with global vision guided by humanitarian values. India has the world's largest population of youth and there is a paradigm shift in the policing function from enforcement to facilitation of law, he said.

    Referring to the ill-effects of rapid modernization and incidents aired on news, TV and social media on daily basis, he said that they put a negative impact on entire society and there was a need to give moral character education at both home and school.

    "Though it is a tough task and would take a long time, but we have to achieve this... Keeping this in view, SPC is being launched at national level to help in building a bridge between the police and the larger community through school students by inculcating values and ethics in them," he added.

    Union Human Resource Development Minister Prakash Javadekar, who was also present, said that the SPC programme works on Education-Values-Law linkage, to enable school community to create safe school environment with confident and discipline youth.

    It will also facilitate development of good health, physical and mental fitness, self control and discipline in youth while enabling youth to work with police in this project, he said, adding teachers will be trained by police to act as Community Police Officers (CPO) and Additional CPOs.

    Noting that students of classes 8 and 9 form nearly 4 crore of the 26 crore students across the country, Mr Javadekar said that programme, including classes, physical training, field visits, SPC camps and practical projects, will be first introduced in the government schools and later will be extended to the private educational institutes.

    Students will be studying about law and constitution, communication skill, disaster management health and hygiene and about setting goal, he said.

    Haryana Chief Minister Manohar Lal Khattar described the SPC programme a milestone and assured that priority would be given to these cadets in the Haryana Police recruitment drives.

    Over 7,000 students, both boys and girls, from across the country participated in the launch programme.

    Union Minister Rao Inderjit Singh, who is the Gurugram MP, Union Minister of State for Home Hansraj Ahir, Haryana minister Rao Narbir Singh and several MLAs were also present.

Rahul Gandhi Concocted Conversation With French President: Arun Jaitley
  • Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, who had initially agreed to give the details, had later backtracked, after officials told her that the price was "classified information".

    After Rahul Gandhi's speech, the French foreign ministry put out a statement on the security pact but did not refer to the discussions between Mr Gandhi and President Macron during his visit this year.

    The statement said there was a 2008 agreement on classified information "that could impact security and operational capabilities" of the defence equipment of India or France.

    The French government's statement did not, however, spell out if the purchase price of the fighter jets was also classified information under this pact.

    "Let him reject," Mr Gandhi said, asked about the rejoinder from France. "I was not alone. Dr Manmohan Singh and Anand Sharma were also present at the meeting," he told reporters on Friday.

    Mr Jaitley on Saturday said Mr Gandhi now seeks to embarrass Dr Singh by insinuating that he "was a witness to the conversation being wholly unaware that his own Government had entered into the secrecy pact."

4 BJP Lawmakers Submit Privilege Notice Against Rahul Gandhi
  • Four BJP lawmakers have submitted a privilege notice against Congress President Rahul Gandhi, accusing him of "misleading" Parliament by making "false" allegations against Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman
    BJP Members of Parliament Nishikant Dubey, Anurag Thakur, Dushyant Singh and Prahalad Joshi have given the notice to the Speaker.

    According to the rules of the House, Mr Gandhi should have given prior notice before making any allegations against any member. He should have given substantiating material to the Speaker, Parliamentary Affairs Minister Ananth Kumar had said, adding notice for privilege motion against Rahul Gandhi will be given for "falsehood and misleading" Parliament

    While speaking in the Lok Sabha during the debate on the no-confidence motion against the government, Mr Gandhi had alleged that Ms Sitharaman had lied to the nation by claiming that India was bound by a secrecy clause in the Rafale fighter jet deal signed with France.

    Mr Gandhi said the French president had clearly conveyed to him that there was no problem in sharing details relating to the Rafale deal worth Rs. 58,000 crore.

    Alleging corruption in the deal, the Congress has been demanding details, including cost of equipment and weapons, but the government has refused to share them citing the secrecy clause.

    Countering his allegations, Ms Sitharaman said all charges were absolutely wrong" and added that the initial agreement for the deal which had the secrecy clause was signed when the UPA was in power in 2008.

    BJP leaders said Mr Gandhi's accusations that PM Modi benefited one industrialist in the Rafale deal and 'betrayed' the Indian Army in Doklam were among his several defamatory allegations against the prime minister. Their privilege motion against him would include these "unsubstantiated" charges.

    The NDA government had signed a deal with France-based Dassault Aviation to purchase 36 Rafale jets.

NASA Gears Up To Fly Probe Into Sun's Scorching Atmosphere
  • NASA is preparing to send a probe closer to the Sun than any other spacecraft has ventured, enduring wicked heat while zooming through the solar corona to study this outermost part of the stellar atmosphere that gives rise to the solar wind.
    The Parker Solar Probe, a robotic spacecraft the size of a small car, is slated to launch from Cape Canaveral in Florida, with Aug. 6 targeted as the launch date for the planned seven-year mission. It is set to fly into the Sun's corona within 3.8 million miles (6.1 million km) from the solar surface, seven times closer than any other spacecraft.

    "To send a probe where you haven't been before is ambitious. To send it into such brutal conditions is highly ambitious," Nicola Fox, a project scientist from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, told a news conference on Friday.

    The previous closest pass to the Sun was by a probe called Helios 2, which in 1976 came within 27 million miles (43 million km). By way of comparison, the average distance from the Sun for Earth is 93 million miles (150 million km).

    The corona gives rise to the solar wind, a continuous flow of charged particles that permeates the solar system. Unpredictable solar winds cause disturbances in our planet's magnetic field and can play havoc with communications technology on Earth. NASA hopes the findings will enable scientists to forecast changes in Earth's space environment.

    "It's of fundamental importance for us to be able to predict this space weather, much like we predict weather here on Earth," said Alex Young, a solar scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland. "In the most extreme cases of these space weather events, it can actually affect our power grids here on Earth."

    The project, with a $1.5 billion price tag, is the first major mission under NASA's Living With a Star program.

    The probe is set to use seven Venus flybys over nearly seven years to steadily reduce its orbit around the Sun, using instruments designed to image the solar wind and study electric and magnetic fields, coronal plasma and energetic particles. NASA aims to collect data about the inner workings of the highly magnetized corona.

    The probe, named after American solar astrophysicist Eugene Newman Parker, will have to survive difficult heat and radiation conditions. It has been outfitted with a heat shield designed to keep its instruments at a tolerable 85 degrees Fahrenheit (29 degrees Celsius) even as the spacecraft faces temperatures reaching nearly 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit (1,370 degrees Celsius) at its closest pass.

Business Affairs

GST Council meet: TVs, washing machines, refrigerators, sanitary napkins to get cheaper; return filing simplified
  • The GST Council has decided to exempt sanitary napkins from the ambit of Goods and Services Tax (GST) and reduce the rates of consumer electronics such as TVs, washing machines apart from kitchen appliances in its 28th meeting held today in the national capital. Demands to remove taxes on sanitary napkins under uniform indirect tax regime were raised strongly ever since it was rolled out on July 1, 2017. Sanitary napkins used to attract 12 per cent tax under GST.

    "A 100 per cent exemption has been put into effect on sanitary napkins. No tax (under GST) will be levied on sanitary napkins," interim Finance Minister Piyush Goyal said while addressing reporters after the GST Council meet. Small handicraft items have also been exempted from GST.

    Fortified milk, which is milk with added vitamins and nutritional supplement, has also been exempted from GST like normal milk, he further added. Before the festival of Rakshabandhan, the GST Council has also decided to exempt rakhis without gold, precious and semi-precious stones from GST.

    Relief for middle class

    GST rates for several items were rationalised by the GST Council today, out of which 17 saw tax rates slashed from 28 per cent to 18 per cent. The changes in GST rates will come into effect from July 27. The major relief for middle-class consumers came in the form of GST rate cut from 28 per cent to 18 per cent on consumer electronics. This will encompass television sets up to 28-inch in size or smaller, washing machines, refrigerators, kitchen appliances and more. GST on paints, varnishes, wall putty, leather items, special purpose vehicles, trucks and trailers have also been reduced to 18 per cent from 28 per cent.

    The council reduced the tax levied on bamboo flooring to 12 per cent in a bid to promote bamboo cultivation. Also, GST will now be charged on actual tariff of hotels, instead of their declared tariffs. Till now, 28 per cent GST was charged on bills of five-star hotels with declared tariff of Rs 7,500 or more, which will now be charged if their actual tariffs is 7,500 or more. Also, now footwear worth Rs 1000 or less, instead of Rs 500, will attract 5 per cent GST.

    No decision on petrol

    While no decision was taken on including petroleum products in the GST regime, the GST Council did cut down the tax rate for ethanol, which is used for blending in petrol and diesel, from 18 per cent to 5 per cent.

    "The rate reductions approved today will be beneficial to 1.25 billion population of India. These rationalisations also are, in a way, recognition of the support shown by taxpayers and businesses towards GST collection," Goyal said.

    The interim Finance Minister also pointed out that the GST Council will not only be driven by revenue collection, but will also take into account aspects like employment generation and GDP growth while taking decisions.

    GST return filing simplified

    In its 28th meeting, the all-powerful GST Council also took steps to simplify the GST return filing process. Now traders with annual turnover up to Rs 5 crore need to file GST returns quarterly, whereas those above this threshold will have to file their returns on a monthly basis.

    While the taxes will have to be paid every month, traders with an annual turnover up to Rs 5 crore will have to file tax returns every three months, said Goyal.

    "It will take some time to be implemented. A deifinite timeline will be declared once we are informed about it by the GST Network," Goyal said.

    Two simplified forms for GST returns, Sugam and Sahaj, have also been approved for business-to-business and business-to-consumer enterprises by the GST Council.

    No decision on sugar cess

    The issue of sugar cess was also reportedly taken up by the GST Council during its meeting today, but a definitive decision has not been reached yet. A report has been submitted in this regard but no decision has been taken on sugar cess yet. A one per cent sugar cess was proposed to assist sugarcane farmers and sugar mills.

    The GST Council also deferred Reverse Charge Mechanism (RCM) by a year to September 30, 2019.

HDFC Bank June quarter net profit climbs 18% to Rs 4,601 crore, bad loans rise marginally
  • HDFC Bank saw its net profit grow by 18.2 per cent year-on-year to Rs 4,601.44 crore in the first quarter of the ongoing financial year, meeting expectations. The bank had posted a net profit of 3,893.84 crore during the quarter ended June 30, 2017, according to a regulatory filing by the bank.

    The total income of HDFC Bank grew 18.8 per cent to Rs 26,367 crore in the June quarter of the current fiscal as opposed to the Rs 22,185.4 crore for the corresponding quarter last fiscal. Net revenues (net interest income plus other income) increased to Rs 14,631.60 crore from Rs 12,887.4 crore earlier.

    The net interest income (interest earned less interest expended) for the quarter grew by 15.4 per cent to Rs 10,813.60 crore, from Rs 9,370.70 crore earlier, driven by asset growth and a net interest margin of 4.2 per cent for the quarter, HDFC Bank said.

    The private lender also saw its operating expenses grow in the quarter under consideration by 11.5 per cent to Rs 5,983.9 crore from Rs 5,367.5 crore registered during the quarter ended June 30, 2017. The core cost-to-income ratio for the quarter was at 40.1 per cent as against 42.7 per cent for the corresponding quarter last year.

    "Total deposits as of June 30, 2018 were Rs 805,785 crore, an increase of 20.0 per cent over June 30, 2017. As of June 30, 2018 current account deposits were at Rs 109,297 crore and savings account deposits at Rs 226,656 crore grew by 17.4 per cent over June 30, 2017. Time deposits were at Rs 469,832 crore, an increase of 24.9 per cent over the previous year, resulting in CASA deposits comprising 41.7 per cent of total deposits as of June 30, 2018," the bank said in its statement.

    On the assets front, gross non-performing assets (GNPAs) stood at 1.33 per cent of gross advances as on June 30, 2018, compared to 1.30 per cent as on March 31, 2018 and 1.24 per cent as on June 30, 2017. Net non-performing assets (NPAs) or bad loans were at 0.41 per cent of net advances as on June 30, 2018, down from 0.44 per cent seen during the June quarter of last fiscal.

    Provisions and contingencies for the quarter were at Rs 1,629.4 crore as against Rs 1,558.8 crore for the quarter ended June 30, 2017.

It's UPA which kept petrol, diesel out of GST: Arun Jaitley to Rahul Gandhi
  • A day after Rahul Gandhi accused the government of not bringing petrol and diesel under the GST, Union Minister Arun Jaitley today reminded the Congress President that it was the UPA which did not include - while proposing GST amendment to the Constitution - petroleum products under the new taxation system. He said: "Is he (Rahul Gandhi) unaware of the fact that the UPA proposed GST amendment to the Constitution never included petroleum products as part of the GST?  It is only the NDA which brought it within the GST with tax to be levied once agreed by the GST Council." 

    Rahul Gandhi while speaking in the Parliament during no-confidence motion had said that the Congress wanted to bring petrol and diesel under a single-rate GST.  Currently, crude oil, natural gas, diesel, petrol and aviation turbine fuel are out of the new taxation system.

    Moving on to Rafale issue raised by the Congress President on Friday, Arun Jaitley today said that Rahul Gandhi concocted a conversation with French President Emmanuel Macron and by doing so he has lowered his own credibility and seriously hurt the image of an Indian politician before the world at large. "Not to be aware of the fact that UPA Government Minister had signed the secrecy pact is not understandable. He now seeks to embarrass Dr Manmohan Singh by implicitly insinuating that Dr Singh was a witness to the conversation being wholly unaware that his own government had entered into the secrecy pact," the Union Minister said in a Facebook post.

    "Rahul has repeatedly shown that he is ignorant of facts. But to insist on disclosure of financial details, which indirectly involves the disclosures of the strategic equipment on the aircraft, is to hurt national interest. Cost gives away a clue to the weaponry in the aircraft," the Minister said. He was responding to the Congress President's charge that the government was lying to the nation on the issue of sharing details of the Rafale jet deal.

    Addressing the Lok Sabha during no-confidence motion against the Modi government, Rahul Gandhi said that the French President had in a personal conversation told him that there was no problem in sharing details relating to the Rafale deal. However, hours after Gandhi's comments, the French Foreign Ministry said that France had signed a security pact with India in 2008 which legally binds the two countries to protect the classified information which could impact security and operational capabilities of the defence equipment.

    Explaining the significance of a no-confidence motion, Arun Jaitley said that a vote of no confidence against the government is a serious business. "It is not an occasion for frivolity. The lead participants in the debate are normally senior political leaders. They are expected to raise the level of political discourse. If a participant happens to be a President of a national political party nourishing Prime Ministerial aspirations, every word he speaks should be precious. His facts should convey credibility.  Facts are always sacrosanct.  None should ever trivialise the debate.  Those who desire to be Prime Minister never blend ignorance, falsehood and acrobatics," the Minister said.

    In September 2016, India signed an inter-governmental agreement with France for procurement of 36 Rafale fighter jets at a cost of around Rs 58,000 crore - nearly one-and-half years after Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the proposal during a visit to Paris. The delivery of the jets is scheduled to begin from September 2019.

    The Congress had raised several questions about the deal including the rates, and accused the government of compromising national interest and security while causing a loss to the public exchequer. It has alleged that the deal negotiated under its rule was much cheaper than the contract signed by the Modi government. The government has been refusing to divulge details of the deal citing confidentiality provisions of an Indo-French pact of 2008.

New Rs 100 notes throw up old ATM problems - time-taking recalibration and Rs 100 crore cost
  • The ATM operations industry on Friday said the introduction of a new Rs 100 note in the country creates many challenges and it would take several months before they could be dispensed through recalibrated machines. They are of the view that an investment of Rs 100 crore will be required to recalibrate the country's 2.4 lakh machines.

    The introduction of the new Rs 100 notes comes at a time when the industry still has not completed the recalibration of all ATMs to dispense the newly introduced Rs 200 notes after the turmoil that was triggered in the post-demonetisation phase. Hitachi Payment Services Managing Director Loney Antony said the exercise of recalibration of the new Rs 100 note could take over Rs 100 crore and 12 months of time to completely recalibrate 2.4 lakh ATMs in the country.

    As the new Rs 200 note recalibration for all ATMs is still not completed, the recalibration of the new Rs 100 note could take longer, unless it is planned properly, he added.

    "We need to recalibrate ATMs for the new Rs 100 note. In India, therefore around 2.4 lakh ATMs will need to be recalibrated," V Balasubramanian, the president of FSS who also serves as the director of industry lobby Catmi, said. He further said that the co-existence of both the new and the older versions of Rs 100 notes poses a challenge. "The continuity of old notes, introduction of new notes through the ATM channel and their availability will determine whether to recalibrate or not," he added.

    Radha Rama Dorai, the managing director for ATM and allied services for FIS, said there is a likelihood of an imbalance between the supply of the new notes and the withdrawal of the old notes, especially in the hinterland. "If the supply of the new currency is unable to fill the gap created by the withdrawal of the old currency, dispensation of Rs 100 currency notes through the ATMs will get affected till such time the imbalance exists," she said.

    The ATM industry is just about finishing the calibrating the ATMS for Rs 200 denomination. "This recalibration would again require investment in terms of cost and efforts," Dorai said. It would, therefore, be prudent to let banks and service providers decide when to calibrate the ATMs for the new currency note, depending on the 'supply-withdrawal' situation in each state over the next few quarters, she added.

    Euronet Services' managing director Himanshu Pujara said while the introduction of the indigenous note is a proud moment, the change in dimensions will make dissemination difficult as it will not be available through the ATM channel. All the ATMs will need to be calibrated, which is time consuming and a very big cost on an already struggling industry, he warned.

    RBI had on Thursday announced that it would soon issue a new Rs 100 note in lavender colour having motif of Rani ki vav', a stepwell located on the banks of Saraswati river in Gujarat's Patan. All Rs 100 banknotes issued earlier will also continue to be legal tender, the central bank said.

    The note has other designs, geometric patterns aligning with the overall colour scheme, both at the obverse and reverse. Dimension of the banknote will be 66 mm x 142 mm, making it smaller than the current Rs 100 notes as against the current note's dimension of 157 mm x 73 mm.

CAG finds faults in Railways' flexi-fare scheme, hints makes more sense for travellers to take flights
  • The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) has asked the Indian Railways to review its flexi-fare system or it will force the passengers to take airlines instead of trains. In its report for year ending March 2017, the CAG has found that the flexi-fare system in premium trains - Rajdhani, Shatabdi and Duronto - led to increase in passenger earnings but the number of travellers during September 9, 2016 to July 31, 2017 came down by over six lakhs when compared to the corresponding period in 2015-2016.

    "Wherever dynamic/enhanced fare was introduced, the occupancy was very low. However, this aspect was not taken into consideration while introducing the flexi fare system in all Rajdhani, Duronto and Shatabdi trains irrespective of demand and occupancy. Even in AC 3 class, which was one of the most profitable classes, the occupancy dropped significantly after the introduction of flexi fare and the vacant berths increased from 0.66 per cent in pre-flexi period to 4.46 per cent in post-flexi period," the auditor stated in its report.

    According to the report, the premier trains carried 2.40 crore passengers during post-flexi period (September 9, 2016 to July 31, 2017) as compared to 2.47 crore passengers during pre-flexi period (September 9, 2015 to July 31, 2016).

    "The occupancy of mail and express trains in the routes of premium trains run was found to be much more than the premium trains during the months test checked (October 2016 and February 2017). As such, passengers preferred to travel by mail and express trains over Rajdhani, Shatabdi and Duronto trains despite a higher travel time," the auditor said.

    The CAG compared railway fare based on flexi-fare system with air fare for 13 sectors and found that travelling in aeroplane was cheaper than in train for a large number of routes. When compared to the cost and time taken for travel by premium trains, air fare became a cheaper and preferable mode of travel, the auditor said.

    It further said that air fare increases with increase in demand but under the flexi-fare system, there is a fixed increase in fares after every 10 per cent of the tickets booked irrespective of the demand. "By paying a higher price for an air ticket, a passenger is ensured a confirmed seat, but a passenger who purchases a waitlisted train ticket by paying a higher amount does not have an assurance of confirmed ticket. Thus, charging a higher fare without providing confirmed seat/berth would force passengers to explore other available alternatives," the report stated.

    The proposal to introduce flexi fare structure in Rajdhani, Duronto and Shatabdi trains was mooted in August 2016 by the Railway Board in order to achieve the additional revenue generation of Rs 5,800 crore in the passenger earnings.

    The Rajdhani, Duronto and Shatabdi trains running in most sectors were highly popular with high average occupancy and contributed about 12 per cent of total Passenger Reservation System earnings, the CAG stated questioning the judiciousness of the decision to introduce the system, which can lead up to 50 per cent increase in the base fare.

    The CAG said that the Indian Railways needs to review the flexi-fare scheme so that not only revenue but also the number of passengers increase. "There is a need for review and fine-tuning in the scope of the scheme so that not only more revenue is earned but a number of passengers also increase, thus, further enhancing revenue," said the report.

General Awareness

    Rani-ki-Vav
    • Why in News? The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) will soon be releasing a new lavender Rs 100 currency note. The banknote highlights the rich and diverse cultural heritage of India as it prominently displays a photograph of ‘Rani-ki-vav’ (The Queen’s Stepwell), an 11th century architectural wonder.

      About ‘Rani- ki- vav’:

      Located in Gujarat’s Patan, the 900-year-old structure is a major tourist attraction, a UNESCO World Heritage site, and was awarded as the cleanest iconic place in India in 2016. It is located on the banks of Saraswati River.

      Who built it? It was built by the Solanki dynasty’s queen Udayamati in the 11th century as a memorial to her deceased husband Bhimdev I.

      Architectural significance: Rani-ki-Vav was built in the complex Maru-Gurjara architectural style. It highlights the sanctity of water as it is designed as an inverted temple under the earth’s surface. The central theme is the Dasavataras, or ten incarnations of Vishnu, including Buddha. The avatars are accompanied by sadhus, brahmins, and apsaras (celestial dancers).

      What’s important?

      For Prelims: Location of Rani- ki- Vav, Maru Gurjara architecture, who built it?
      For Mains: Architectural significance.

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