Current Affairs Current Affairs - 27 January 2018 - Vikalp Education

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Current Affairs - 27 January 2018

General Affairs 

BSF's All-Woman Biker Squad Makes A Jaw-Dropping Debut On Republic Day
  • An all-woman contingent of the Border Security Force or BSF dazzled spectators with their daring bike stunts during the 69th Republic Day celebrations at Rajpath. In one of the most-awaited acts of the day, the women constables created some stunning formations, such as "fish riding, side riding, faulaad, peacock and Saptarishi", that dropped jaws and drew cheers.

    The BSF and the Army perform bike-borne daredevils every alternate year. This time it was the BSF's turn. A total of 113 women made a grand entry on 26 Royal Enfield motorcycles. The contingent led by sub inspector Stanzin Noryang, 28, was the first-of-its-kind to perform dangerous stunts while riding 350cc motorcycles.

    Ms Noryang didn't know how to ride a bike when she volunteered to be included in the BSF's "women daredevil team". In fact, most of the women in the contingent couldn't ride a bike. But now they can perform any daredevil stunt, the proudly say.

    Women from all over the country were handpicked to be part of this squad.

    The all-woman daredevil bikers squad, Seema Bhawani, was raised on the lines of their much-acclaimed male counterparts. BSF Director General KK Sharma came up with the idea in 2016 to form an all-woman bikers group which could replace men daredevils, Deputy Inspector General Pushpendra Rathore said. Women from all over the country were handpicked to be part of this squad.

    "As many as 15 members are married and some of them have children too. But their determination and enthusiasm is admirable," Gen Chandra said.

    After a rigorous training regime, they hop on their bikes sharp at 8 and perform stunts till 1 pm.

    The day starts early for these women, all aged between 25 and 31. After a rigorous training regime, they hop on their bikes sharp at 8 and perform stunts till 1 pm. They practise some more in the evening.

BSF Refuses To Exchange Sweets With Pakistan Rangers Over Ceasefire Violations
  • The Border Security Force (BSF) on Friday refused to exchange sweets and greetings with their Pakistani counterparts - the Pakistan Rangers, on the occasion of the 69th Republic Day.

    The move by the BSF came following the heightened tension between both countries along the International Border (IB) and Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir due to repeated ceasefire violations by Pakistani forces leading to killing of soldiers and civilians on the Indian side.

    Tension continues to prevail along the IB and LoC for the past few months due to repeated ceasefire violations.

    BSF sources said it was conveyed to the Pakistan Rangers on Thursday that no sweets will be exchanged on Republic Day.

    Border guards of both countries follow a tradition of exchanging sweets for the past several years on major religious festivals, like Eid and Diwali, and also during Independence Days of both countries and India's Republic Day.

    The BSF is on maximum alert along Punjab's barbed wire fenced 553-km IB with Pakistan.

    In the past 4-5 years, border guards have skipped the exchange of sweets on a few occasions.

    The exchange ceremony is mainly held at the Attari-Wagah joint check post, 30 km from Amritsar.

Supreme Court Asks Chhattisgarh High Court To Modify Order On Taking Aadhaar For Bail
  • The Supreme Court on Thursday asked the Chhattisgarh High Court to modify in ten days its order directing all trial courts in the state to mandatorily accept copies of Aadhaar card for releasing an accused on bail.

    The January 5 order of the high court had created much hue and cry in the Naxal-affected state, as a large number of accused continued to languish in jails despite getting bail, but not getting release warrants due to delay in verification of Aadhaar and revenue records or surety papers by the police.

    With the situation aggravating, a Bilaspur district judge wrote a letter to the High Court on January 10 apprising it about the problems being faced due to the January 5 order, including non-grant of bail to those accused even of petty offences.

    The high court took the letter of the district judge on record and instituted another case to deal with the situation.

    Further hearing of the high court is scheduled on January 29.

    On Thursday, a bench of Chief Justice Dipak Misra and Justices AM Khanwilkar and DY Chandrachud disposed of a petition filed by advocate Peeyush Bhatia challenging the high court order and terming it as against the orders of the top court and the fundamental rights of citizens.

    "We have been apprised by the counsel appearing for the Chhattisgarh Bar Council that it has filed an application for modification of the directions issued by the High Court...", the bench said.

    It said, "we would request the high court to deal with the application as per law within a span of ten days hence".

    Advocate Manohar Pratap, appearing for Advocate Bhatia, said the high court order had resulted in the breach of fundamental rights and liberty of citizens, which would be handheld in the domain of the executive as there was no independent machinery to verify the details of Aadhaar.

    Advocate Pratap sought a stay on the order of high court saying it was creating lot of difficulties for the people.

    Advocate Bhatia, who was also present, said since the state was affected by Left-wing extremism, the policemen were taking the help of CRPF to reach remote areas to verify the credentials of the accused who get bail and his sureties.

    He said that due to practical problems faced by the authorities in verifying and scrutinising revenue records, the accused person has to remain in jail as his release warrant is not issued.

    Advocate Rajesh Pandey, appearing for state Bar Council, said the high court has agreed to modify its January 5 order and the matter should be referred back to it.

    The top court bench then said the high court should modify its order within ten days and disposed of the petition.

    The high court had issued the guidelines while dealing with a case in which an advocate's clerk had stood surety for an accused to secure bail and fudged the revenue record of another individual by pasting his own picture.

    It had said the menace of submission of sureties by fictitious persons to secure bail of an accused needed to be controlled and regulated by all trial courts of state and the trial court should necessarily obtain copy of the Aadhaar Card of the accused as well as of the surety.

    The high court had directed all trial courts to verify the genuiness of the Aadhaar card of the accused and the surety along with the revenue papers within one week of submission. It had directed the trial courts to lodge an FIR if the revenue or surety papers or the Aadhaar card was found to be forged.

    It had even warned judicial officers of disciplinary action if no certification is found on the order sheets of the cases, besides directing revenue officers and the Station House Officers to cooperate with the trial court in the course of verification of the records.

On Shiv Sena's Solo Plans, Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis Says, 'If they're Wise...'
  • Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis does not think that the Shiv Sena will act on its threat to contest the 2019 Lok Sabha elections on its own. Chief Minister Fadnavis said the Shiv Sena is "quite wise" and understands that it would be a bigger loser than the BJP if they were to contest the elections separately.

    "What I really feel is that saying and doing are two different things in politics," Mr Fadnavis said. The Chief Minister had last year told the Shiv Sena to stop playing the roles of a ruling party and an opposition at the same time but the warning did not stop its alliance partner from flinging barbs at the BJP.

    This week, the Shiv Sena's national executive decided to go solo in the Lok Sabha and assembly elections scheduled in 2019 and asked people to vote out the Narendra Modi government in the next round. But till then, the Sena hinted that it may not divorce its partner of 25 years.

    Mr Fadnavis, who was in Davos to attract foreign investors to Maharashtra, that his party was "ready for any eventuality" but underlined that Shiv Sena would have to pay a heavier price if it were to walk out of the alliance.

    "They will change their mind," Mr Fadnavis said.

    "Just tell me. If Congress and NCP (Nationalist Congress Party) come together and BJP and Shiv Sena are fighting apart, will that only damage BJP's votes? It will damage them badly, much worse that what it will damage us. I think they are quite wise politically," he said.

    "They (Shiv Sena) will be the worst losers," Mr Fadnavis said.

    The BJP and the Shiv Sena have been allies since the early 90s, but their relations have been at a prolonged breakpoint ever since the BJP emerged as Maharashtra's number one party in the 2014 national election, winning the most parliament seats in the state and then months later became the single largest party in 288-member Maharashtra assembly with 122 seats.

    It reversed their longstanding position of the Sena as senior partner, which the party has found difficult to live down. The Sena's attacks on Prime Minister Narendra Modi's central policies and Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis have been become more frequent, often delivered in scathing editorials in its mouthpiece Saamana.

    The BJP continued its winning streak in the 2017 municipal elections in Mumbai where it emerged as the largest party by a small margin but let the Shiv Sena take the Mayor's post. Neither of them had the numbers to rule the corporation, the richest in the country, on its own.

    Mr Fadnavis also made an oblique reference to previous instances when the Shiv Sena had contested elections on its own but then ended up, after the election results, joining the alliance.

    "For past three years, I have experience of Sena says many things. But in politics, it is not what you decide, it is what people decide. And it is what circumstances decide. So let us see," he said, recalling that the Shiv Sena did go solo before the 2014 assembly election.

    Back then, the Shiv Sena and BJP weren't the only alliance partners who could not agree on a seat-sharing formula. Just weeks before assembly elections, the NCP had also exited the Congress-led government and contested the elections alone.

    But in recent months, there have been reports of some narrowing the gap between the two former allies. Mr Pawar has, more than once, showered praise on the new Congress president and declared that the central government "was getting scared of Rahul Gandhi".

    In November last year, the NCP leader had also left the door open for renewing the alliance. "Earlier also, we went for this government together and ruled over 15 years, even now if there's a room for it, then yes," Mr Pawar said.

    The two parties will be together at a march in Mumbai today, originally called by social activists, which is being seen as another attempt at building a united opposition front to take on the BJP in parliament and test the ground for a coalition for the 2019 national elections.

Air Show, Women Daredevils Watched By 10 World Leaders On Republic Day
  • India celebrated its 69th Republic Day today with a record 10 heads of state, from ASEAN or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, watching the grand parade with Prime Minister Narendra Modi at Rajpath, the ceremonial road in the heart of Delhi. The leaders, sporting crimson Indian scarves, sat on a 100-foot stage enclosed by bullet-proof glass, their presence demonstrating India's stress on upgrading its 'Look East' policy to 'Act East'. At the start of the ceremony, the Prime Minister, in a saffron, red and green safa or traditional headgear, paid homage to soldiers who died in the line of duty.

    Here are top 10 points on the 69th Republic Day celebrations:

    India's highest peacetime military decoration Ashok Chakra was given to Indian Air Force Garud commando Corporal Jyoti Prakash Nirala, who died fighting terrorists in Jammu and Kashmir last year. The soldier's wife and mother received the award from President Ram Nath Kovind.

    Tableaux showcasing India's deep historical, cultural and religious ties with the ASEAN nations were among the first of the floats gliding down Rajpath.
    These were followed by floats from 14 states and Union Territories, nine ministries, departments and paramilitary forces.

    Union ministers in the audience were seen standing and applauding displays from their ministries. Many were seen standing and cheering the float from PM Modi's home state Gujarat, which celebrated "a century of Sabarmati Ashram and Gandhi".

    An all-women contingent of the Border Security Force or BSF performing daring bike stunts was among the most stunning spectacles at the parade. Stunts like "fish riding, side riding, faulaad, peacock and Saptarishi", with the women constables in incredible formations, were cheered wildly by the crowds.

    The Army's T-90 tank, Brahmos Missile System and Akash Weapon System were the main draw in the military contingent. The Air Force tableau displayed models of the home-made Tejas Multirole Fighter Aircraft, Rudra Helicopter, Arudhra Radar and Akash missile system.

    The show stopper was the Indian Air Force's air display starring C-130J Super Hercules, C-17 Globemaster, Su-30 MKIs and LCA Tejas.

    There was loud applause as children awarded for their bravery appeared. Of 18 winners, three children have been honoured posthumously.

    PM Modi's invite to the 10 leaders marks a significant outreach in the face of China's growing influence in the region. "We are committed to working with ASEAN for maritime cooperation," the PM said at the India-ASEAN summit yesterday, in what was seen as a message to China.

    Nearly 60,000 personnel of the Delhi Police and central security forces were posted in central Delhi. Snipers were stationed on top of high-rise buildings along the parade route.

Business Affairs

Donald Trump says 'America first does not mean America alone' at WEF 2018
  • Declaring that America is open for business under his leadership, President Donald Trump told a gathering of political and business elites on Friday that the economic growth taking place in the U.S. due to his "America first" agenda also benefits the rest of the world.

    Trump told the World Economic Forum in Davos, an incongruous location for a nationalist president, that American prosperity has created countless jobs around the world, but stressed that his priority would always remain on protecting the interests of within his nation's own borders.

    "As president of the United States, I will always put American first just as the leaders of other countries should put their countries first," said Trump.

    But the president tried to strike a balance, tempering his nationalist agenda with reassurances to the globalist and cooperation-minded audience that his protectionist vision "does not mean America alone."

    "When the United States grows, so does the world," Trump said. "American prosperity has created countless jobs around the globe and the drive for excellence, creativity and innovation in the United States has led to important discoveries that help people everywhere live more prosperous and healthier lives."

    As Forum chairman Klaus Schwab introduced Trump, he drew some hisses when he said that the president could be subject to "misconceptions and biased interpretations." When Trump took the stage, he received modest applause but some people kept their hands at their sides. The crowd was largely subdued as the president spoke but there were boos when Trump took a swipe at the media.

    Once more shadowed by revelations back home about the ongoing Russia probe, Trump showcased the country's roaring economy and made a pitch to the world leaders that "America is open for business and we are competitive once again."

    The gathering had viewed Trump with skepticism, given his "America First" message, but the White House has insisted that his protectionist policies and international cooperation can go hand-in-hand.

    Trump addressed the crowd of over 1,500 people packed into a high-ceilinged hall in the modern conference center. Anticipation was high from attendees, who have watched the president closely since he arrived, snapping photos when he entered and as he moved from room to room.

    Trump hit some of the same nationalist notes that have become hallmarks of his other speeches to international gatherings, calling for secure borders, stricter immigration policies and enhanced national sovereignty, saying that each nation should put its own economic interests ahead of the larger multi-national partnerships.

    "We support free trade but it needs to be fair and it needs to be reciprocal," said Trump, who has long expressed a preference for one-to-one national trade deals rather than regional ones. But he also left the door open to re-entering the Trans Pacific Partnership, a sweeping trade deal from which he withdrew a year ago, saying that "perhaps" the United States could resume negotiations with many of the participating countries at once.

    As if making a salesman's pitch, Trump repeatedly boasted about the nation's economy and pushed for international cooperation combatting terrorism. But he left unaddressed a number of concerns for the globalist community, including climate change, the fate of refugees and diplomatic solutions for a number of the world's hotspots, including the Middle East.

    Kristian Jensen, Denmark's finance minister, provided some of the first international feedback, writing on Twitter "Honestly speaking, a rather ordinary speech from @realDonaldTrump. We didn't need a sale speech for ???? but a vision for a renewed cooperation about growth."

    While interest in the president's remarks has been keen, the moment was shadowed by a report in The New York Times that he had ordered the firing of special counsel Robert Mueller last June, but backed off after White House lawyer Don McGahn threatened to resign.

    Asked about the report as he entered the conference center, Trump said: "Fake news, folks. Fake news. Typical New York Times fake stories."

    The first sitting president to attend Davos since Bill Clinton in 2000, Trump was expected to use his speech to tout his economic agenda and argue America is open for business. He'll also stress his commitment to free markets under what he sees as fair terms.

    Trump used his time at the summit to meet with world leaders, attend a reception in his honor and host business executives at a dinner. On his way in Friday he declared that his visit had been a success, adding: "We have a tremendous crowd and a crowd like they've never had before."

    Trump sought earlier Friday to ease tensions with a key African leader, meeting with Rwandan President Paul Kagame and calling him a "friend" in the aftermath of his controversial comments about African countries.

    The meeting came after Trump drew widespread condemnation for allegedly referring to African nations as "shithole countries" in discussing immigration, according to those at the meeting. The president has denied using that language. Others present say he did.

    And a day after Trump sought to make nice with British Prime Minister Theresa May, he said in a new interview that he "would certainly apologize" for retweeting anti-Muslim videos from a far-right British group.

    Trump told British journalist Piers Morgan that "I know nothing about" the Britain First group and "would certainly apologize, if you'd like me to do that." A clip of the interview was released Friday, with the full interview scheduled to air Sunday on ITV.

TPG Capital-backed group led by Mukund Rajan makes bid to buy Tata Tele assets for $1 billion
  • Tata Group may soon sell the assets of loss-making Tata Teleservices, which recently sold its mobile business to Airtel. Reports suggest a consortium backed by a US-based investment group has bid to buy the assets of the company. A TPG Capital-backed consortium comprising several executives of Tata Group placed bid to buy the Tata Tele enterprise for around $1 billion, reported Bloomberg. The consortium is led by Mukund Rajan, who's the head of international operation of Tata Teleservices; he is also the brother of former RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan.

    Another player who could also bid for Tata Teleservices is its sister company Tata telecommunications, which in the past had said it was interested in buying the enterprises' fixed-line business. If that happens, TPG-backed consortium could face competition in closing the deal. The report says many other players could still emerge to bid for the company's fiber business sale.

    Tata Teleservices owns optical transmission network of over 113,000km across the country. If the deal happens, the company, already suffering from huge debt burden, could repay some of its debt of Rs 28,000 crore.

    Tata Teleservices and Tata Teleservices Maharastra sold consumer mobile businesses to Airtel on a debt-free cash-free basis in October. Bharti Airtel now owns Tata consumer mobile businesses operations across the country in 19 circles. Earlier, it was reported that Tata Tele's debt will be settled by Tata group. Tata will retain its stake in Viom and take care of associated liabilities -- American Tower Company (ATC) owns 51 per cent stake in Viom while Tata Tele holds 33 per cent and Tata Sons 2 per cent. 
    The telecom sector has been witnessing rough weather in terms of profitability due to rising competition and lower margins, resulting in large scale lay-offs in the sector. The so-called 'tariff war' started by Mukesh Amabni-led Reliance Jio has caused consolidation in the telecom sector amid mounting losses.

    The year 2017 saw many telecom companies merging their telecom businesses. Prominent deals include Vodafone India and Idea Cellular merger, Airtel's acquisition of Tata Tele's mobile business and Telenor and Tikona digital. Reliance Jio, which has turned profitable for the first time after its launch 16-month ago, bought Anil Ambani-led RCom's wireless assets, including spectrum, tower, fibre optic, for a total value of nearly $3.75 billion.  

Good news for first time home buyers! Govt cuts GST on affordable homes from 12% to 8%
  • In what could usher in some relief for the first time home buyers, the government has reportedly cut GST rate from 12 per cent to 8 per cent for houses purchased using the credit-linked subsidy scheme (CLSS) under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna.

    According to a report in Times of India, a first time homebuyer with a family income of up to Rs 18 lakh per annum will be eligible for a benefit of up to Rs 2.7 lakh while buying a house or apartment of up to 150 square metres (1,615 sq ft) carpet area under the Credit-Linked Subsidy Scheme.

    Carpet area is the area enclosed within the walls i.e. actual area to lay the carpet. This excludes the thickness of the inner walls.

    Those who do not qualify for CLSS will continue to pay GST at 12 per cent for the same house, it said.

    In November, the Cabinet had approved an increase in carpet area of houses eligible for interest subsidy under the CLSS. This will be applicable for the Middle Income Group (MIG) under PMAY.

    The GST benefit will also be extended to low-cost housing projects having the infrastructure status where the maximum unit size in the project is a carpet area of 646sq ft. The first-home condition on the buyer will not be applicable in such cases. GST will be levied at 8 per cent notwithstanding if the buyer gets the CLSS benefit under PM Awas Yojna, the report added.

    While under the MIG-I category, the carpet area of the houses was increased from 90 square metre to 120 square metre, the area under MIG-II segment, was increased to 150 square metre from 110 square metre.

    Under the MIG-I category, a four-per cent interest subsidy is provided to the beneficiaries, whose annual income is between Rs 6 lakh and Rs 12 lakh on a loan of up to Rs 9 lakh. On the other hand under the MIG-II category, the beneficiaries with an annual income of Rs 12 lakh to Rs 18 lakh get an interest subsidy of three per cent on a loan of up to Rs 12 lakh. PMAY aims to provide houses to all the urban poor by 2022.

    Builders as of today are charging buyers on the super built-up area, which includes area of outer walls, balcony and lobbies, stairs and even elevators. RERA is against the practice of super built up area and want to remove it. However, under PMAY, the area of the house is different for all categories and it's the carpet area and not the super area that is to be looked at.

ICICI Prudential MF's PMS unit to wind up 2 schemes; to return money
  • The country's largest fund house ICICI Prudential AMC will soon wind up two small-cap schemes run by its portfolio management division as "too much money is chasing very few quality" stocks.

    The money invested in these schemes will be returned to investors, according to the company.

    The portfolio management services (PMS) division manages money of high networth individuals.

    "We are currently in the process of winding up ICICI Prudential's PMS schemes -- PIPE and Smallcap Portfolio Series I," Nimesh Shah, who is the Managing Director and Chief Executive of the fund house said in a statement.

    "We are in a situation where the valuations are very rich and too much money is chasing very few quality small cap companies," he added.

    Currently, ICICI Prudential PMS manages investors' funds to the tune of Rs 4,000 crore, while overall the fund house has an assets under management of over Rs 2.93 lakh crore.

    "Keeping the client interest in mind, we would be returning entire capital and profits to investors," he added.

    Alternately, the fund house has recommended investors to invest in ICICI Prudential's Wellness PMS which is a play on healthcare and allied sectors as a theme.

    Besides, it said that Flexi cap could be another option given the investments will be spread across market capitalisation.

    "Our decision of returning money to investors is in line with ICICI Prudential AMC's philosophy that 'return of capital is also important along with return on capital'," he said.

    This is not the first time wherein the AMC has taken this kind of step.

    "Infact, this is the third product after ICICI Prudential PMS Wellness Portfolio (launched in March 2013) and ICICI Prudential PMS Exports Portfolio (launched in June 2013) where we have booked profits and distributed capital with profits," Shah said.

Govt to issue UWIN Cards to informal workers from April
  • The labour ministry will begin a drive in April to register over 47 crore unorganised sector workers and provide them with Unorganised Worker Index Number or UWIN Card, bringing them under the social security net, according to an official source. It wants to complete the exercise by the end of next fiscal, before going to the polls in 2019, so that these workers are covered under the social security code proposed by the ministry.

    "The ministry will begin registering the unorganised workers across the country by the beginning of the next fiscal (April-March, 2018-19)) to provide them benefits of various social security schemes run by retirement fund body EPFO and state health insurer ESIC," the official source said.

    The UWIN Card would have unique number which would be seeded with Aadhaar to provide all benefits of social security schemes at one stop, he added.

    "Labour Code on Social Security and Welfare is at the consultation stage and could be a reality by the time registration of informal workers is complete," he said.

    The ministry has already initiated a pilot on the UWIN Cards to test the efficacy of the system, he said, adding that it is satisfied with the results.

    The source said that the only issue is that as to who would pay the matching contribution for informal sector workers under the schemes run by the Employees Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) and Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC). Under these schemes, apart from employees, the employers also contribute to social security scheme accounts.

    The government, said the source, will have to find some mechanism for informal sector workers as there would not be any employer to contribute for the schemes. The source said that the under the new code, the issue of contribution by employer is likely to be sorted out.

    The code provides that in case of an informal or non- employee worker, the 'principal employer' could be the said worker himself.

    Therefore, once the code is enacted, there would not be any hindrance of having 'principal employer' to subscribe the social security schemes run by the EPFO and ESIC for the informal sector workers.

    The Code on Social Security & Welfare will combine all the existing 15 laws related to social security including EPF & MP Act, ESI Act, Maternity Benefit Act, Payment of Gratuity Act, Employees Compensation Act, Unorganised Social Security Act, and various Welfare Cess/Fund Acts.

General Awareness

Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
Republic Day 2018

  • India is celebrating its 69th Republic Day this year. Republic day in India is celebrated every year on 26th of January to honour the Constitution of India as it came into force on the same day in the year 1950.

    In a first, the Republic Day celebrations will have 10 chief guests. The heads the ASEAN leaders from Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos and Brunei – will be hosted in this year’s celebrations. The significance of the ASEAN leaders attending the event is that ASEAN completes 50 years of formation and that India completes 25 years of its partnership with the grouping.

    Why January 26th?

    The Constitution came into effect on January 26, 1950, a date specially chosen to coincide with the anniversary of ‘Purna Swaraj Diwas’. January 26, 1930 was marked as ‘Purna Swaraj Diwas’, or the day the nation would attain complete freedom from its colonisers by the Congress.

    The members of the drafting committee felt that the birth of the constitution should be observed on a day that held some significance in their fight for independence. When India was ultimately granted freedom by the British in 1947, but on August 15 and not January 26, the date was instead assigned to celebrating India’s Republic Day.

    This was the day the Indian Independence Act was consequently repealed and India was established as a democratic republic, no longer a dominion of the British Crown.

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