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Current Affairs - 30 August 2017

General Affairs 

As Doklam standoff gets resolved, PM Narendra Modi, Chinese President Xi Jinping to meet on sidelines of BRICS Summit in Xiamen
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President of the People's Republic of China Xi Jinping are expected to "bilaterally connect" next week on the sidelines of the BRICS Summit at Xiamen in China, top government sources told India Today.
    The development comes just a day after India announced that the terse Doklam standoff, which saw Indian and Chinese soldiers locked in a face-off on the Doklam plateau, was drawing to a close. India and China were withdrawing their troops from the standoff site, a solution that was reached after hectic diplomatic parlays, New Delhi said on Monday.
    With the Doklam standoff getting resolved amicably, the focus is now on restoring Indo-Sino ties. "India is looking at restoring ties back to pre-Doklam status," a senior officials in know of the developments told India Today. Sources confirmed that preparations the bilateral meeting, during which PM Modi and President Xi are expected to discuss a wide range of issues that include terrorism, were on New Delhi.
    Peace and tranquillity along the Indo-Sino border are among the other topics that are likely to be a major focus on of the two leaders' meeting, sources added. It is understood that Prime Minister Modi is likely to reiterate there should be "no unilateral change of status of the border".
    "India," the sources added, "is looking forward to a successful BRICS summit and boost to economic relations." Indian and Chinese trade is at all time-high and is expected to touch USD 100 billion in the near future.
    PM Modi expected to reach Xiamen on September 4 and will leave the 5th, immediately after the BRICS Summit comes to an end.
    Since mid-June, India and China had been locked in a standoff on the Doklam plateau, a region contesting between Bhutan and China and which abuts the Indo-Sino border in the Sikkim sector.
    The face-off, one of the longest in recent history, began after Chinese People's Liberation Army attempted constructing a metal-top road in Doklam (which China calls Donglang). India, which considered the road construction activity a threat to national security, sent its troops to the region to prevent the road building, a move that resulting in soldiers from the two nuclear-armed neighbours pitching tents on their respective sides and entering into the high-stakes standoff.
    One of New Delhi's prime concerns was that the road construction posed a risk to the slender Siliguri corridor - also referred to as the Chicken's Neck - that connects India to its Northeast.
    The standoff dragged on for weeks, even as Chinese state media upped the rhetoric on a near-daily basis, with some particularly hawkish news outlets even warning of war. Throughout, Beijing maintained that the Doklam standoff could only be resolved if India unilaterally and unconditionally withdrew its troops from the region.
    Finally, New Delhi, which had all long indicated that diplomacy would successfully resolve the issue, on Monday announced that an agreement for troops to "expeditiously disengage" from Doklam had been reached.
    Later in the day, the Ministry of External Affairs, in a second press release, cleared up the confusion over whether China too was withdrawing its soldiers, saying that both Indian and Chinese troops had "almost" completed the disengagement process.

Medha Patkar begins four-day nyay yatra seeking justice for people displaced near Sarovar dam
  • Medha Patkar of the Narmada Bachao Andolan along with hundreds of her supporters started a four day 'nyaya yatra' from Badwani on Tuesday, seeking justice for those who have been displaced by the Sardar Sarovar dam.
    The 'nyaya yatra' will pass through 50 villages of the three districts Dhar, Badwania and Khargone.
    Patkar and her supporters started the rally from the Barwani vegetable mandi with black bands tied around their mouths.
    There was no slogan shouting as the silent protest march passed through the town.
    The black bands have been tied by the protesters in reaction to the court's direction to Patkar in which she was asked not to obstruct government work.
    Patker had started an indefinite fast in Chikalda in Dhar district on July 27 seeking cancellation of the raising of the height of the Sardar Sarovar Dam. She ended her fast after 17 days in Dhar district jail after a delegation of people including oustees requested her to end the same.
    Patkar has alleged that 5000 families living in the catchment area of the Sardar Sarovar dam in Madhya Pradesh have not been adequately compensated and that the families have refused to leave their homes.The catchment areas are likely to submerge once the Sardar Sarovar Dam reaches it full tank level.

Railway Board chairman Ashwani Lohani writes to staff on safety on a day Duronto Express derailed
  • On a day the Nagpur-Mumbai Duronto Express derailed near Asangaon today, newly-appointed Railway Board Chairman Ashwani Lohani wrote a letter to all railway employees asking them to ensure highest level of safety to instil a sense of confidence among the passengers.
    He said the Indian Railways has suffered a serious dent in the recent past due to certain unfortunate incidents. Without mentioning the derailment of Duronto Express in Maharashtra or any other recent train accidents, he said such incidents often overshadow the great work that this organisation performs day in and day out.
    Lohani asked the employees to resolve to bring about an all-round improvement in the working of the railways for satisfactorily meeting the hopes, expectations and aspirations of the vast multitude.
    "Safety shall always remain our principal focus area. We have to always be on our guard to ensure the highest level of safety in train operations and instil a renewed sense of confidence in our esteemed passengers," he said.
    Lohani said cleanliness at stations and on trains is another area that is crying for attention and often contributes to the image of the railways. Similarly, he said, the quality of catering and linen on trains is also an area of serious concern. "We have to work in a mission mode to bring about quantitative and qualitative improvements in a very short time frame in these areas, while at the same time not losing sight of the fact that the railways need an overall improvement to achieve total customer satisfaction," he said.
    The Railway Board Chairman said the operating ratio of the organisation needs to be brought down considerably. He asked the staff to do not only by reducing expenditure but also by increasing freight loading besides finding other means of non-conventional revenue generation to achieve a spurt in revenues.
    Lohani reiterated the importance he attaches to employees of an organisation. "I have always believed in the supremacy of the human resource. For me my employees, not the customers, come first.  For, it is my firm conviction, that a contented and happy employee is the prerequisite for the success of any organisation. And this great organisation is no exception," he said, adding that he would, therefore, expect employee welfare to be the core concern of all railway employees.
    At the same time, he said, the department has to deal with the evils of corruption, sexual harassment at work places and alcohol abuse while on duty. These are social evils and need to be dealt firmly with an iron hand, he said.
    On a personal note, Lohani said he believe in avoiding any frills in the form of bouquets, gifts, lavish celebrations and excessive protocol. "These divert our attention from our primary responsibilities, hard core work and severely damage the organization also. Our focus needs to be on deliverance and deliverance alone. We also have to reform our processes, many of which have, with passage of time, become so complicated that they seriously hamper work. That remaining busy is not deliverance is a thought that also needs to be imbibed," he said.
    He made a fervent and personal appeal to "all my fellow railwaymen" to put in their best effort to restore the old glory of "the lifeline of the nation - the great Indian Railways".
    He said the post of chairman, Railway Board, is not only an onerous responsibility but also a challenge being the administrative head of the railways. "At this critical juncture when we are facing a serious issue with the image perception of the railways, I expect all my fellow railwaymen to pitch in wholeheartedly to set this perception right. I am sure, with your cooperation, we will be able to achieve and re-establish the pristine glory of the brand Indian Railways," he said.
    Lohani sought to remind the employees the glory of the railways. Stating that it is the largest employer in the world under a single management and the wheels on which the nation moves, he said the sincerity, dedication and professional capability of the railway employees, both officers and staff, is unparalleled.
    "It is the men on the field who, regardless of their personal inconveniences and hardships, ensure that the wheels of the nation keep moving surely and safely.  This is what makes the Indian Railways the most visible symbol of dynamic delivery in our country," he said in the letter which starts with "Dear colleagues" and ends with "Jai Hind".

New EVMs are good, old EVMs were bad: AAP after Bawana bypoll result
  • The Bawana bypoll result and the victory of the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) from the Delhi seat have once again brought to focus the allegations regarding rigging of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs). Delhi Chief Minister and AAP convener Arvind Kejriwal, who had alleged that the Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) were tampered with during the Punjab Assembly elections held earlier this year, seems to have praised the EVMs for the party's victory in the Bawana bypoll.
    Soon after the result for Bawana bye-elections was announced yesterday declaring AAP candidate Ram Chander victorious, the party came under attack on social media over EVMs. Questions were asked about the Kejriwal's stand on EVMs. He was asked whether the EVMs were not rigged now. In a bid to apparently silence the critics, Kejriwal retweeted a post by AAP's Greater Kailash MLA Saurabh Bharadwaj which compared the results when EVMs were used without Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) in the MCD elections and now in the Bawana bypoll when VVPATs were attached to EVMs.
    Bharadwaj said the AAP lost five out of the six wards during the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) elections held in April when old EVMs without VVPATs were used. On the other hand, he claimed that the AAP won by a margin of more than 24,000 votes in the Bawana bypoll when VVPATs were used.

    Following AAP's defeat in the Punjab Assembly elections earlier this year, Kejriwal had laid the blame on the EVMs. He had alleged that the EVMs were tampered with.
    He was joined by other Opposition leaders such as Bahujan Samaj Party supremo Mayawati who also joined chorus with Kejriwal and alleged that the EVMs had been rigged in the Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections, which were also held in February and March. While AAP won 20 of the 117 seats in Punjab, BSP bagged only 19 of the total 403 seats.
    Subsequently, AAP demanded EC to hold the MCD elections in April by paper ballots. However, that demand was also rejected by the election panel. AAP lost the MCD as well as the bypoll in Rajouri Garden.
    Following these poll debacles, Bharadwaj made a demonstration with the help of a dummy machine in a special session of Delhi Assembly on May 9. He attempted to prove that EVM's mother chip can be tampered with.
    This led to a month-long battle and war of words between the AAP and the Election Commission (EC).
    Earlier, Kejriwal had tweeted that "a huge conspiracy against the nation" would be exposed by Bhardwaj in the Assembly.  But EC rejected AAP's charge saying it was a dummy machine. AAP demanded that the EC hand over an EVM to them for 72 hours and they would prove that its software could be tampered with. EC invited the political parties for a hackathon on June 3 instead.
    Except for the CPI(M) and NCP, no other political party took part in the EVM challenge. CPI(M) and NCP did not complain against EVMs. The CPI(M) said it only wanted to understand the EVM process while the NCP said it treated the event as an academic event.
    The then chief election commissioner Nasim Zaidi had said that the issue of "tamperability of machines" should be closed with the end of the challenge. Zaidi added that all future elections would feature EVMs connected to VVPAT machines, which allow voters to check that the ballot has been correctly cast.
    Though the issue seemed to have closed on June 3, the Bawana bypoll has reopened it with AAP and Kejriwal maintaining that the EVMs were tampered with in the previous elections.

Govt to IITs, universities: Host patriotic rock fests to mark 70 years of freedom
  • In a directive sent to all the IITs and central universities, the Human Resource Development Ministry has asked them to host "patriotic music bands" as part of the government's drive to mark 70 years of India's independence and 75 years of the Quit India Movement.
    The directive dated August 21 and sent to Vice-Chancellors and Directors of all 75 higher education institutions controlled by the Centre asks them to celebrate "Ye India Ka Time Hai" event. Part of the proposal says they should host a session on "New India Manthan" followed by a music concert by select rock bands.
    The music bands are being identified and deputed by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting through the National Film Development Corporation (NFDC).
    "A private entertainment firm has been taken on board which has identified around a dozen rock bands. The shows will be planned in various institutions over the next month," a senior official told PTI.
    The IITs and the central universities have been asked to identify suitable venues for the event, and has instructed them to inform students in advance. The directive also says that since the bands will playing patriotic tunes, "suitable decorum" should be maintained.
    The Opposition has questioned the intent behind the events. "What is the purpose behind sending rock bands in IITs? The Modi government has done nothing for the welfare of people. Now this is completely a divisionary politics. IITs are for innovation, not for such things," AIMIM chief and MP Asaduddin Owaisi said.
    Earlier this month, the government had also asked all the universities and educational institutions to take their students to memorials of freedom fighters and residences of martyrs in the run-up to the 70th Independence Day celebrations.
    The varsities and schools had also organised an "oath-taking ceremony" where students, teachers and non-teaching staff took a pledge to make the country a "terrorism-free, caste-free, corruption-free, uncleanness-free and poverty-free society".

Business Affairs

Government has no plans yet to reissue Rs 1,000 currency notes
  • Rumours of government bringing back Rs 1,000 currency notes were put to rest with Ministry of Finance denying any such plans.
    "There is no proposal to reintroduce 1,000 rupee note" said Economic Affairs Secretary Subhash Chandra Garg in a tweet.
    Reports of Rs 1,000 currency bills being reintroduced started doing the rounds shortly after the Reserve Bank of India issued new 200 rupee notes for the first time ever on August 25. Rs 1,000 currency notes were scrapped in demonetisation of high denomination notes back in November last year. Modi government had announced the withdrawal of old Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 currency notes to put a check on black money, influx of counterfeit notes and terror financing.
    The RBI had issued Rs 2,000 notes along with new Rs 500 bills, with additional security features.
    The central bank also launched Rs 200 notes to ease pressure on lower-denomination currency bills and also fill the "missing link" between Rs 100 and Rs 500 currency. Besides the bright yellow 200 rupee notes, Rs 50 currency bills in fluorescent blue with revised designs and security features was also introduced earlier this month. Both new notes were issued with new Mahatma Gandhi series and signature of RBI Governor Urjit Patel.
    The RBI has already announced that it would be ramping up the supply of Rs 200 notes.
    The optimal system of denominations of currency (coins and notes), the RBI had said, is one that would minimise the number of denominations and concurrently increase the probability of proffering exact change.
    "So, what should be the optimal mix of currency denominations? Many countries have opted to use a near variation of the Renard Series, i.e., 1:2 or 1:2.5 ratio between adjacent denominations of currency, which means that the denomination should be twice or two and half times of its preceding denomination," the central bank had said.
    Such a ratio allows exchange of value ordinarily in a maximum of three denominations, it added.
    Amidst new and revised notes being issued, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley had clarified last week that Rs 2000 notes in circulation will continue to be legal tender. The RBI, however, has reportedly stopped printing new Rs 2000 notes.

GST revenue exceeds estimates with Rs 92,000 crore collection, 64% taxpayers pay up: Arun Jaitley
  • The state exchequer raked in more than Rs 92,000 crore in tax returns filed under the Goods and Services Tax (GST) for the month of July. The maiden tax collections under the uniform indirect tax regime have crossed the estimated target, said Finance Minister Arun Jaitley.
    Extrapolating the targets in the annual Budget, the central government's July tax revenue should be Rs 48,000 crore and that of states Rs 43,000 crore. The total combined target of the two is Rs 91,000 crore, Jaitley said.
    According to a Finance Ministry statement, tax returns filed for the first time under GST amount to a total of Rs 92,238 crore till 10:00 am on Tuesday. Out of this, Rs 14,894 crore was collected under Central GST head, whereas Rs 22,722 crore came in as State GST. Another Rs 47,469 crore was collected as Integrated GST, which is levied on movement of goods and services from one state to another. Out of the total IGST collection, Rs 20,964 crore was levied on imports. Rs 7,198 crore was paid by taxpayers as cess charged against demerit good, Jaitley added.

    The number is likely to go up after all taxes are accounted for and the tax collection number would "somewhat increase" with more compliances, he further added. Jaitley commented that GST revenues will exceed the target when all taxpayers file returns, even without compensation cess being factored in.
    Jaitley informed that these tax revenue figures are on account of 64.43 per cent of the total 59.57 lakh taxpayers registered with GST. This figure of registered taxpayers does not account for those who registered with GSTN in August and dealers under the composition scheme. So far, 38.3 lakh of the total number of taxpayers supposed to file GST returns for July, 2017.
    So far, 72.33 lakh taxpayers have migrated to the new system. Of these 58.53 lakh have completed all the formalities. A nominal Rs 100 per day penalty is levied for late filing of Central-GST and a similar for State-GST tax.
    The deadline for filing first monthly return and payment of taxes under GST - the new indirect tax regime that unifies over a dozen state and central taxes, including excise duty, service tax and VAT - ended on August 25. However, businesses that availed of transitional credit were allowed to file returns till August 28 after paying taxes on self-assessment basis by August 25.

Narayana Murthy backs Nandan Nilekani, lashes out at R Seshasayee at Infosys investor call
  • Days after Nandan Nileakni took over as the non-executive chairman of Infosys, co-founder NR Narayana Murthy has reiterated that the previous management, led by Vishal Sikka, had disregarded the values of corporate governance and compromised transparency in the IT major.
    In an investor call in Bangalore, Narayana Murthy expressed confidence at Nilekani to lead Infosys while lashing out against the previous board for the allegations it had made against him.
    Murthy cited the Board's "inconsistent responses" on the issue of severance package paid to ex-CFO, Mr. Rajiv Bansal in October 2015. Murthy categorically targeted former Infosys Chairman R Seshasayee and the Board for not coming out clean on the matter, and instead "misleading" the shareholders.
    "Given such a set of inconsistent responses from the Board, would not any concerned shareholder come to the conclusion that the Board was not being transparent and was, perhaps, misleading us, the shareholders?" Murthy said after detailing the Board's statements.  
    Murthy also quoted the whistle-blower, who complains against the management had appeared in the media, on how Seshasayee had lied at an AGM. "In the AGM in July, Seshasayee lies about the reason for payments made to the ex-CFO claiming it was made in consideration of his long service and to protect the company from its secrets being compromised. In reality, it was paid to protect to the secrets of the CEO and the Board," Murthy quoted the whistleblower in the investor call.
    Nilekani, however, has voiced his faith in Nandan Nilekani to bring back the "glory days" of Infosys. "I am confident that the management team and the professionals at Infosys will rally behind Nandan and bring back the glory days. Infoscions are second to none in competence and character," he said.
    Murthy praised Nilekani for holding strong values while reminiscing the time he had hired him. "I have known Nandan for over 38 years ever since he walked into my office for a job. I gave him a very difficult IQ test and he passed it with flying colors. He is also a value-based person. He is the first among the hundreds of thousands of professionals who symbolized the byline of Infosys - Powered by Intellect; Driven by Values," he said.
    "Having worked with Nandan for long, I know that he is a stickler for good corporate governance. Now, we can all sleep better knowing that, under his leadership, the corporate governance standard practised by Infosys will be on par with the global best standard. In fact, based on Nandan's media interviews and the recent changes in the board, I believe that corrective actions have already begun. As explained earlier, it is this kind of corrective and decisive action that I was looking for in the detailed report. These actions are now being taken. Therefore, we can all move forward from here and look to the future," he added.

Sensex, Nifty fall over 1% on North Korea missile launch; NTPC, Sun Pharma, HDFC and Reliance Industries among top losers
  • The market snapped four days of gains on Tuesday with the Sensex and Nifty falling over 1 percent lower, tracking weak global markets after Korea fired a ballistic missile that flew over Japan before plunging into the northern Pacific Ocean.
    While the Sensex closed 362 points or 1.14 percent lower at 31,388 level, Nifty closed 1.18 percent or 116 points lower at 9,796.
    The Nifty closed below the 50-day moving average (DMA) of 9,810 on Tuesday.
    JP Associates (9.57 percent), India Cements  (5.05 percent) and Firstsource Solutions (4.87 percent) were the top losers on the BSE.
    "Early negativity from Asian markets over North Korea followed through to the domestic market," said Anand James, chief market strategist with Geojit Financial Services.
    "Investors are also booking profits after Nifty tested 9,900 levels on Monday while there is some volatility ahead of the expiry," he added.
    On the 30 stock Sensex, NTPC (2.80 percent), Sun Pharma (2.35 percent), HDFC  (2.20 percent) and Reliance Industries (2.17 percent) were the top losers. Mahindra and Mahindra (0.25 percent) and Wipro (0.02 percent) were the lone gainers on the index.
    All sectoral indices on the BSE ended in the red with the bankex and consumer durables falling 290 and 258 points, respectively.  
    Bank Nifty too fell 248 points to 24,128 level.
    NTPC which started a 5 percent stake sale today fell up to 4 percent in early trade and closed 2.80 percent lower on the BSE.
    The Rs 7,000-crore share sale in India's largest power producer, NTPC, got off to a bumper start, with non-retail investors lapping up the quota reserved for them before close of market hours.
    Market breadth was negative with 828 stocks closing higher against 1736 ending in the red on the BSE.
    On Tuesday, the 30-share BSE Sensex rallied 154.76 points to 31,750.82 and the 50-share NSE Nifty gained 55.75 points at 9,912.80 despite subdued global cues.
    Global Markets
    The Asian region was rattled by an aggressive test-flight over Japan that sends a clear message of defiance as Washington and Seoul conduct war games nearby.
    France's CAC 40 dipped nearly 1.0 percent in early trading to 5,030.32, while Germany's DAX fell 0.8 percent to 12,021.52. Britain's FTSE 100 lost nearly 0.1 percent to 7,329.63. U.S. shares were also set to drift lower with Dow futures down 0.5 percent at 21,691. S&P 500 futures were also lower, down 0.6 percent, at 2,428.20.
    Japan's benchmark Nikkei 225 fell 0.5 percent to finish at 19,362.55, while Australia's S&P/ASX 200 dipped 0.7 percent to 5,669.00. South Korea's Kospi lost 0.2 percent to 2,364.74. Hong Kong's Hang Seng shed 0.1 percent to 27,828.67, while the Shanghai Composite inched up nearly 0.1 percent to 3,365.23.

NTPC disinvestment: Institutional investors buy 86% of shares
  • In a boost to the Narendra Modi government's disinvestment programme, state-owned NTPC's 5 per cent stake sale took off on Tuesday with 86 per cent of shares reserved for institutional investors getting subscribed by afternoon.
    The sale of 5 per cent stake would fetch around Rs 7,000 crore to the exchequer at the floor price of Rs 168 apiece.
    Over 41.22 crore shares of NTPC are on offer under the divestment programme with an option to retain over-subscription of similar amount.
    The government is selling over 32.98 crore shares to institutional buyers in the offer for sale (OFS).
    Institutional investors had placed bids for 28.4 crore (28,47,75,011) shares, or 86 per cent of total size, by 1200 hrs, the NSE data showed. The OFS issue will open for retail investors tomorrow.
    However, in secondary market, shares of NTPC fell 3 per cent to Rs 168.15 per scrip on the BSE. The government has so far raised over Rs 8,800 crore through disinvestment in six companies in this fiscal, including selling a stake in L&T through Specified Undertaking of Unit Trust of India (SUUTI), and one share buyback.
    This is against Rs 72,500 crore targeted to be raised in 2017-18 through stake sale in PSUs. This includes Rs 46,500 crore from minority stake sale, Rs 15,000 crore from strategic disinvestment and Rs 11,000 crore from the listing of PSU insurance companies.

General Awareness

Arun Jaitley hands over LRSAM to Indian Navy

  • Defence Minister Arun Jaitley handed over the Long-Range Surface-to-Air Missile (LRSAM) jointly developed by India and Israel, to the Indian Navy at Bharat Dynamics Ltd (BDL) at Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad. The first batch of LRSAM, being inducted into the Navy, was symbolically handed over to Vice Admiral Karambir Singh, the vice-chief of naval staff.
    • The Rocket Motor Static Test Facility was dedicated to the nation by Arun Jaitley at BDL’s Ibrahimpatnam Complex located near Hyderabad. An amount of 48 Crores spent on this facility.
    • The Union Minister inaugurated ASTRA Manufacturing Facility. Astra weapon system is an indigenously developed Air-to-Air Beyond Visual Range (BVR) missile developed by DRDO. It comprises of Astra Launcher and Astra Missile. It is designed as a BVR missile with a range of 110 Km in head-on mode and 20 Km in tail-chase mode. BVR missiles are the latest in air to air combat.
    • He also inaugurated the 5 MW Solar Photo Voltaic (SPV) Power Project at BDL, Bhanur Unit, Telangana State. As part of Govt of India’s Jawarharlal Nehru National Solar Mission(JNNSM).
    About LRSAM:
    i. LRSAM is an advanced combat suit for missile defence against air targets and missiles, and has full capabilities of air and surface surveillance, threat alert and fire control.
    ii. The other LRSAM we have is BARAK 8 . It is also a joint collaboration project of India and Israel.This LRSAM was developed by DRDO-IAI (Defence Research & Development Organization – Israeli Aircraft Industries) as a Joint Development Contract with defined work-share.
    iii. The missile is same for Tri Services viz., Navy, Air Force and Army.
    About BVR missiles:
    i. A beyond-visual- range missile (BVR) is an air-to- air missile (BVRAAM) that is capable of engaging at ranges of 20 nmi (37 km) or beyond.
    ii. This range has been achieved using dual pulse rocket motors or booster rocket motor and ramjet sustainer motor.
    iii. In addition to the range capability, the missile must also be capable of tracking its
    target at this range or of acquiring the target in flight.
    About BDL:
    Public sector BDL is the missile production agency for the three-armed forces. These efforts were accompanied by the Defence Research and Development Organisation DRDO as the development agency.

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